Why does the newborn have a navel? This problem appears in many parents already after discharge from the hospital, and raises many questions and concerns. But this does not always indicate a disease, sometimes it's just the features of healing the umbilical wound. When do not you worry? Children born physiological way without complications are discharged after three days from the hospital. As a rule, in most of the umbilical wound already begins to heal and dry, and in some even up to three days it disappears. But often it also happens that when caring for the umbilical wound can be damaged, or simply by bathing a little hurt the navel. At the same time, he can slightly heal, which is a normal reaction to an unhealed wound. How long does the navel have a newborn baby? It must be dry and clean, and for five to fifteen days must heal and fall away. It is this period that is considered normal for those cases when it can heal. If this lasts longer, then you should definitely contact the doctor.
What are the other reasons for the navel to be closed? The most common cause can be considered hemorrhagic disease of the newborn. The pathogenesis of the disease lies in the characteristics of the child's organism in relation to the hemostasis system. These features include functional deficiency of platelets, which can be the basis for the development of hemorrhagic conditions in newborns. In addition, attention should be paid to the reduced concentration in newborns of individual coagulation factors - II, VII, IX, X, XI, XII, antithrombin and plasminogen. All these features are also characteristic for the system of hemostasis of premature newborns. Physiological insufficiency of platelets or plasma coagulation factors can become pathological and lead to the development of hemorrhagic disease of newborns. There are some features of the child's body that contribute to the development of blood clotting disorders. A small decrease in factors II, VII, IX, X is observed in children in the first three days after birth. But this deficit is unstable, by the end of the first week of life the child can restore all the scarce factors. In the body of a pregnant woman, there is also a deficiency of vitamin K, which affects the formation of blood clots and reduces the rate of blood clotting in a newborn baby. In a small number of newborns (2-5% of all children), the level of K-vitamin-dependent clotting factors may be lower, which is one of the reasons for their bleeding. This may be due to the appointment of pregnant anticoagulants of indirect action, anticonvulsants, acetylsalicylic acid, as well as the pathological condition and toxicosis of a pregnant woman against a background of low estrogenic background, a violation of the formation or absorption of vitamin K in the intestines of the mother. Mother's milk in the first days of life can not compensate for vitamin K deficiency, since it is available in small quantities. Therefore, the important thing in the elimination of this deficiency is the colonization of the child's intestinal microflora, which produces this vitamin. That is why in children by the end of the second week of pregnancy, the deficit of K-vitamin-dependent factors is eliminated. And one of the most frequent and early symptoms of this disease is that symptom when it starts to heal the navel.
Another reason may be other forms of hemorrhagic diseases. Hereditary forms of hemorrhagic diseases of newborns can be caused both by a violation of the function of platelets, and by a decrease in the concentration of individual plasma clotting factors. Hereditary hemorrhages of a thrombocyte character - thrombocytopenic purpura. Hemorrhages occur only in cases of the most severe forms: hemorrhage from the navel, bleeding in the brain. Sometimes congenital hypoplastic thrombocytopenia can also occur.
Hereditary haemorrhages of a coagulation character are severe forms of hereditary deficiencies of plasma coagulation factors V, VII, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, with the deficit of which hemorrhagic phenomena leading to the death of newborns. The cause of death of newborns are hemorrhages in the brain, profuse gastrointestinal bleeding, hemorrhages from the umbilical cord. With insufficient amount of XIII plasma factor in newborns, "umbilical syndrome" can manifest itself - a slow closure of the umbilical wound and bleeding from it within 2-3 weeks of life. With insufficient amount of this factor, newborns often have hemorrhages in the gastrointestinal tract, the brain and its membranes. The main share of hemorrhagic conditions in newborns belongs to the acquired forms. Some of them are associated with a violation of platelet function, the other is coagulative.
Secondary vitamin K-deficiency hemorrhagic syndrome: occurs in children with mechanical jaundice (atresia of the bile ducts and bile ducts, bile ducting syndrome), enteropathy, intestinal dysbacteriosis; is associated with impaired absorption of fat-soluble phylloquinones.
DIC-syndrome in newborns can occur with various pathological conditions, signifies a severe catastrophe. May be a cause of severe bleeding from the navel. At the same time there is marked clotting of blood, which closes the loose masses of fibrin and aggregates of blood cells vessels, and then, having exhausted the stock of procoagulants, the ability to coagulate disappears, leading to profuse bleeding. Causes of the development of DIC syndrome: septicemia, late toxicosis of pregnant women in the mother, physiological immaturity of the reticuloendothelial system in the fetus, asphyxia, acidosis, hypothermia, traumatic lesions during childbirth and the like.
The main phases of development: hypercoagulation and blood coagulation is already beginning inside the vessels, as well as hypocoagulation. In general, DIC syndrome is largely associated with the defeat and violation of blood flow in small vessels due to platelet adhesion, blood clots in the blood cells, cellular respiration disorder and acidosis, platelet pathology. In DIC syndromes of different genesis, the mechanism of bleeding is not the same: in some forms, platelet-microcirculatory disorders act on the foreground, while in others, coagulation shifts occur, in the third case, violations in all hemostasis. Hemorrhages are caused by consumption of clotting factors, fibrinogen blockade, platelets by products of fibrinogen fibrin degradation, increased vascular perceptibility as a result of hypoxia, activation of the kinin system, decrease in the number and function of platelets.