Safety and prevention of diving injuries

, medical expert
Last reviewed: 20.10.2021

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Diving is a relatively safe hobby for healthy, appropriately trained and trained people. There are courses on the safety of scuba diving offered by national diving organizations.

trusted-source[1], [2], [3], [4]

Safety measures for diving

The probability of barotrauma can be reduced by active equalization of pressure in various air spaces, including a mask (blowing air from nose to mask) and middle ear (yawning, swallowing, or performing Valsalva reception). Divers should avoid breathing delay and breathe properly during ascent, which should be no faster than 0.5-1 feet per second, a speed that gradually eliminates N and releases air filled cavities (eg, lungs, paranasal sinuses). Modern recommendations for additional pressure equalization also include a 3-5 minute decompression stop at a depth of 4.6 m (15 ft). In addition, divers should not use air transport within 15-18 hours after diving.

Divers need to know certain conditions that complicate the dive (eg, weak visibility, strong underwater currents), and avoid them. Low water temperature is especially dangerous for the rapid development of hypothermia, threatening rapid loss of sobriety of mind and skill, or fatal arrhythmia in people predisposed to it. It is not recommended to dive alone.

The use of any amount of alcohol and drugs before diving can have unpredictable and unexpected consequences at depth and should be ruled out. Medicines prescribed by a doctor rarely prevent diving, but if the drug was prescribed for the treatment of a disease that is a contraindication for scuba diving, then it is better to abandon the latter.

Contraindications to diving

Since scuba diving is associated with high loads, divers should not suffer from cardiovascular or pulmonary diseases and should have an oxygen exchange level above the average. Diving is contraindicated in diseases in which there may be disturbances in consciousness, vigilance and criticality. If any diseases cause doubts as possible contraindications to scuba diving, a consultation of a recognized expert is necessary.

Special contraindications to diving

Medical contraindications for swimming Examples of diseases and undesirable effects
Diseases of the lungs Bronchial asthma in active form, COPD, cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis, interstitial lung disease, spontaneous pneumothorax in anamnesis
Cardiovascular diseases Ventricular arrhythmias in history, coronary bypass, heart failure, IHD
Mental diseases Panic and phobia
Organic diseases Inguinal inguinal hernia
Neurological diseases Convulsions, fainting
Metabolic diseases Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, excess body weight
Isolated cavities in the body (impossibility of equalizing pressure) Cysts in the lungs, rupture of the tympanic membrane, upper respiratory tract infection, allergic rhinitis
Pregnancy Increased frequency of congenital malformations, death of the fetus
Weak physical training  
Severe gastroesophageal reflux Deterioration due to a weakening of gravity on the abdomen when immersed
Children under 10 years of age  
Congenital aerophagy Distension of the gastrointestinal tract upon ascent due to ingestion of compressed air at depth

trusted-source[5], [6], [7]

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