Safety measures for diving
The probability of barotrauma can be reduced by active equalization of pressure in various air spaces, including a mask (blowing air from nose to mask) and middle ear (yawning, swallowing, or performing Valsalva reception). Divers should avoid breathing delay and breathe properly during ascent, which should be no faster than 0.5-1 feet per second, a speed that gradually eliminates N and releases air filled cavities (eg, lungs, paranasal sinuses). Modern recommendations for additional pressure equalization also include a 3-5 minute decompression stop at a depth of 4.6 m (15 ft). In addition, divers should not use air transport within 15-18 hours after diving.
Divers need to know certain conditions that complicate the dive (eg, weak visibility, strong underwater currents), and avoid them. Low water temperature is especially dangerous for the rapid development of hypothermia, threatening rapid loss of sobriety of mind and skill, or fatal arrhythmia in people predisposed to it. It is not recommended to dive alone.
The use of any amount of alcohol and drugs before diving can have unpredictable and unexpected consequences at depth and should be ruled out. Medicines prescribed by a doctor rarely prevent diving, but if the drug was prescribed for the treatment of a disease that is a contraindication for scuba diving, then it is better to abandon the latter.
Contraindications to diving
Since scuba diving is associated with high loads, divers should not suffer from cardiovascular or pulmonary diseases and should have an oxygen exchange level above the average. Diving is contraindicated in diseases in which there may be disturbances in consciousness, vigilance and criticality. If any diseases cause doubts as possible contraindications to scuba diving, a consultation of a recognized expert is necessary.
Special contraindications to diving
|Medical contraindications for swimming
||Examples of diseases and undesirable effects
|Diseases of the lungs
||Bronchial asthma in active form, COPD, cystic fibrosis, bronchiectasis, interstitial lung disease, spontaneous pneumothorax in anamnesis
||Ventricular arrhythmias in history, coronary bypass, heart failure, IHD
||Panic and phobia
||Inguinal inguinal hernia
||Insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, excess body weight
|Isolated cavities in the body (impossibility of equalizing pressure)
||Cysts in the lungs, rupture of the tympanic membrane, upper respiratory tract infection, allergic rhinitis
||Increased frequency of congenital malformations, death of the fetus
|Weak physical training
|Severe gastroesophageal reflux
||Deterioration due to a weakening of gravity on the abdomen when immersed
|Children under 10 years of age
||Distension of the gastrointestinal tract upon ascent due to ingestion of compressed air at depth
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