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Racing on bicycles

, medical expert
Last reviewed: 01.06.2018
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The race on bicycles appeared, apparently, from the birth of the first bicycle. It is not so important who invented this wonderful means of transportation - the great Leonardo, the simple Russian peasant Artamonov or the German von Dres, today cycling, bicycle games have become one of the most popular and popular shows.

The first bike races were recorded by inquisitive journalists at the end of the 19th century, the year 1869 was marked by the Paris-Rouen race, where the representative of the foggy Albion, who reached the speed of 11 kilometers per hour, won. European racers loved the competition on the highway, and the British, because of the terrible condition of the roads, preferred at that time track cycling. Since 1896, a rapidly developing sport has been included in the program of the Olympic Games.

Later, bicycle racing began to last several days and the very first, significant multi-day race was the 1200 km race - Paris-Brest-Paris, which started in 1891 year. The stages in it were not envisaged, each participant independently determined his own speed in pursuit of the coveted prize. Twelve years later, a truly grandiose race was born, which is now one of the most prestigious in cycling - a grand tour, called the Tour de France. Modern bicycle racing has a variety of options, types, disciplines, including extreme. The rules and regulations that determine the cycling process were developed in 1900 when the athletes teamed up as an international union of cyclists, and later the UCI created several more units regulating competitions between amateurs and cycling professionals.

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Races on bicycles, categories, types

Highway cycling, which for today is quite a lot, but the most popular ones are cycling in the form of individual races. Individual cycling race is held as follows: each cyclist starts the race separately, usually a minute after the next. The task of the cycling race is to pass a certain distance as quickly as possible or to go as far as possible for a fixed period of time. The distance can be from 16 kilometers to 160 kilometers, and the usual fixed time for such competitions fits between 12 hours and days.

There are such road cycling races, when the start is given simultaneously to all racers or teams, if the road race is supposed to be a team competition. "Criterium" is a variant of a bicycle race, in which a rather short ring section of the highway is set, as a rule, no more than five kilometers, located within the city limits. The task of the athletes is to come first to the finish line, after passing a certain number of laps. There is also the option of racing on an open highway or a longer ring cycle. Ring cycling lasts no more than one day.

Longer, multi-day road racing on bicycles is a step-by-step competition on non-closed, long highways, the task of athletes is to pass through all stages with minimal time, regardless of the championship at each stage. The most prestigious world competition of this type is the international Tour de France, which involves overcoming about 5000 kilometers (4000 to 4800) on the roads of France and other neighboring countries. Every year the tour organizers change the route, including new roads and mountain passes. The cyclist who becomes the lucky owner of the "yellow jersey", for a whole year wears the proud title of the best, fastest, hardiest cyclist in the world.

Road cycling involves competitions and endurance, when racers get a very long, difficult route, which they must overcome almost without stops and rest, the race continues literally around the clock.

Also, bicycle racing along the highway is included in the multi-species competition - the triathlon, where athletes compete for victory not only on bicycles, but also in swimming pools and running.

Track bike races are competitions on steep turns made artificially (on velodrome) or built under the open sky. The track is an oval closed path that has a given grade (42 degrees) on bends, with a concrete or wooden covering. The length of the track is on average 333 meters, but in the air can reach 500 meters.

Bicycle race with a handicap is a competition with a massive start and determination of the achievements of athletes, shown earlier both in speed, endurance, and skill.

Sprint races on the tracks is a contest in several laps (up to three), when the victory literally breaks out from the opponent at the last 200 meters. Sprint - this is one of the oldest competitions, which the riders are carefully selected with the help of qualifying races.

Scratch-track races are group races, when many participants start simultaneously. The one who lags only one lap immediately disappears from the competition, the one who is ahead of all rivals in a circle, that is, breaks forward, is determined as a winner, and the race is considered complete.

The Japanese invented the original kind of cycling on the track - Keirin, when simultaneously the starting participants rush for the "turf" - a motorcyclist. Almost to the finish (for 2.5 laps), athletes must move behind the motorcycle, without overtaking it. As soon as the "derni" comes off the track, the athletes begin to compete for victory between themselves. Of course, the winner is the one who comes first to the finish line.

Race biking tracks can be in the form of general races for a fairly short distance, there are races with persecution, more like bike games, cycling for speed, time and medium distance.

Off-road cycling - European cycling routes up to 25 kilometers in a circle with overcoming obstacles - ditches, fallen trees, fords, barriers, riverbeds and streams. The cyclo-crosses are held in the autumn-winter period, obviously to add additional difficulties in the form of weather conditions. The bicycle riders start simultaneously, during the trip they can even run or walk near the bicycle, they also have assistant assistants. Such a competition, play and bicycles must match each other, so the vehicle is equipped with wide special tires and has strong wheel rims. In the United States, off-road bicycle races are held with the most difficult obstacles, sometimes bordering on extreme ones.

There are also more extreme bike races, among which you can call a mountain bike - races on special, mountain bikes, derring - jumping through the two-humped springboards, freeride, biker-cross, dual, bicycle motocross, racing, street and many other interesting cycling options. .

Games on bicycles

Obviously, the fans of cycling were not enough races and independent training, so, since the end of the XIX century, there were games on the bike. The bicycle does not exclude games, as the process of controlling a two-wheeled vehicle resembles a kind of game with its own coordination and endurance. Cycling is a team competition, directed, like any other competition to get the coveted prize.

Bike Polo - Bike Polo or bicycle polo

This is the most famous and "ancient" game, which involves replacing horses with bicycles. Bike Polo finally formed as an independent species by 1891, thanks to the efforts of the Irish cycling fan - Richard Mekredi. Enterprising bicyclist even managed to get a registered patent for his "invention", called in the original Cycle Polo. Since 1908, when cycling was included in the Olympic program, until the Second World War, Cycle Polo was one of the most popular kinds of competitions in Europe and the USA. The second birth of the union of "game bicycles" was in the 80 years of the last century in India, and then in America. Today, bike games are very different from previous competitions, and so did the Bike Polo, which was renamed Urban Cycle Polo. For a modern game, the bicycle should be equipped with protective discs on wheel spokes, the athlete needs an attribute in the form of a bit, as well as a ball or puck, which in fact must be scored in the opponent's goal. Rapid growth of popularity of Urban Cycle Polo did not leave indifferent the members of the international cycling association, which recognized the official bicycle and included it in the list of their planned annual events. Despite the official recognition of Bike Polo in each region has its own nuances and rules regarding the number of team members, the duration of the game. There are also unified rules, which are as follows: 

  • The athlete has no right to touch the feet of the surface, the ground, except when it is necessary to touch a bat of a specially allocated zone in the middle of the playing field. For violation is a fine. 
  • The impact on the ball should be made only by the narrow side of the sports beat, otherwise the kick or goal will not be counted. 
  • The team that scored the goal must wait until the opponents cross the midfield line, or the ball crosses the line. Until the "Rubicon" is crossed by a ball or opponents, the scoring athletes must be within the boundaries of their own zone.

Bike Polo continues to gain popularity as a fascinating, exciting game, requiring participants to master the mastery of a bike, to think strategically, to have fast, fast thinking and reaction. 

Cycleball - or cycling

This combination of "games and bikes" resembles football, of course, with its unique nuances, because all players score the ball into the opponent's goal not with their feet, but with the help of a bicycle wheel. Cycling is held both in closed halls and in open areas, but the game in the hall is the most popular. The team can consist of only two players, the maximum number of participants in one group is six. Cycling is a child of American cyclists, which was born almost simultaneously with bicycle polo. According to legend, while walking on a bike, someone Kaufman met an aggressive dog, throwing him under the wheels. As if the virtuoso of a bicycle ride forged a dog with a wheel, and, without injuring the evil animal, threw it aside. So there was the idea of manipulating the ball with a bicycle wheel. In 1883, the resourceful Kaufman, in partnership with fellow Ferley, surprised the public by playing ball together on bicycles. Velobol fell in love with the Americans, then the baton was picked up by European bikers. Modern bicycle games are even more surprising, there are even bicycles on the ice, which, however, is not as widespread as Cycleball. Velobol is divided into the following specific categories: 

  • Games on bicycles with the participation of 4 players - two teams of two participants. The field is 11 by 14 meters in size. 
  • Cycling, which involves 10 people, two teams of five cyclists. The size of the field corresponds to the size of the field for handball. 
  • Cycling with two teams, each with six players. The game is played with a soccer ball on an open large area.

The task of players is similar to the goal of any team game that involves manipulating the ball - to score as many goals as possible. The ball is clogged with the help of the front wheel, you can also use your head or trunk. It is inadmissible to touch the ball with your hands or feet, the attacker's scoring of the ball has strict limitations in the same way as various power resistances (hitting, points). The duration of this type of bike is only 14 minutes - two halves of seven minutes each. Break - no more than 2-3 minutes, if in such a short period no one wins, add one more time. In the bikeball a special ball is used, a prepared platform and the bike itself with a very movable, manipulative steering wheel. 

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Flash Cross

This is one of the youngest games that are born at the junction of the "game bike", in which the participants need very good sports training, resourcefulness, quick reaction. A flash cross is also called a cycling quest or a photo cyclo-cross, due to the fact that the camera is being used during the game. The task of the game is to get to the finish line first by performing certain tasks in parallel. Before the start, participants receive a detailed map of the area and a photo session. Athletes should find in the real locality the points sealed and fix their arrival to the point in the picture. The peculiarity of the bicycle quest is that the picture should be as close to the original as possible. Also in the photo, the participant must be imprinted with his faithful "friend" - a bicycle. At the finish line, the jury calculates the scores of the whole team, summarizing the achievements of each participant. If the place is photographed by all the team members, the minimum score is put, for an individual "find" the score is higher, for a very difficult and confusing place in the search sense is given the maximum score. Flash-cross lasts during the day and ends at a certain hour, for delay is assumed a penalty in the form of deprivation of points scored.

Games and bicycles, cycling, cycling and just cycling are a great way to recharge energy, maintain muscle tone, and thus health, get a charge of positive emotions. It is obvious that as long as a person is "friends" with a bicycle, new types of racing and games will appear. To be afraid of the disappearance of the cycling sport in the next century is probably not worth it, and the prospect of human development of Mark Twain, consonant with the writer, seems to be quite positive, because he maintained the following: "When I see a person on a bicycle, I'm not afraid for the future of mankind."

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