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Professional diseases of athletes

 
, medical expert
Last reviewed: 18.06.2019
 
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The life of an athlete is a frequent debilitating exercise, physical activity, early deterioration of the body, accidental injuries and, as a consequence, the emergence of occupational diseases. For example, shooters and biathletes often have hearing problems. Swimmers sooner or later acquire diseases of the respiratory system and nasal sinuses. Athletes who are engaged in figure skating, gymnastics and weightlifting, may subsequently suffer from pathologies of the spine and joints.

Needless to say, most of the diseases are manifested after the end of sports career. Those who have long been engaged in cardio-loading, after 40 years, often have heart problems.

But more pathologies are observed in professional boxers: a number of specific diseases for them are characterized by retinal detachment, encephalopathy, parkinsonism, epilepsy, etc.

Separately, it should be said about the intake of anabolic steroids and stimulant drugs. Such remedies improve the performance of athletes, but with age, their reception affects the state of most internal organs and the musculoskeletal system.

trusted-source[1], [2], [3], [4], [5]

Occupational diseases swimmers

For professional swimmers and divers are typical such pathologies:

  • acute otitis - an inflammatory process in the ear, with pain in the ears, the discharge of pus and deterioration of hearing;
  • barotrauma - damage to the middle ear as a result of pressure drops, in particular, with deep diving;
  • infectious diseases of the ear and nasal sinuses - are caused by infection in the ear and nasal passages;
  • damage to the tympanic membrane - more often associated with barotrauma;
  • exostosis of the auditory canal;
  • otomycosis development of a fungal infection in the ear.

The consequences of such diseases are obvious - it is a pain in the ears, a violation of auditory functions, dizziness, noise and ringing in the ears, chronic sinusitis and sinusitis.

In some cases, arthrosis of the shoulder joints and osteochondrosis of the cervical spine are also observed.

Professional diseases of football players

Everyone knows about the increased risk of injury to players during the matches. Most often, athletes injure lower limbs, knee and ankle joints, less often - arms and head. Football is characterized by fractures, sprains, lacerations of muscles and tendons, dislocations, periosteal injuries, concussions. Injuries - this is the most common, but not the only pathology, peculiar to football players. What kind of diseases are we talking about?

  • Inflammatory processes in the joints (bursitis, arthritis);
  • inflammation of ligaments and tendons (ligamentitis, tendonitis);
  • inflammation of the periosteum (periostitis);
  • traumatic myositis (aseptic inflammation of the muscles);
  • vasculitis and phlebitis (inflammatory processes in the vessels);
  • Parkinson's and Alzheimer's.

The vast majority of diseases are the consequences of injuries, which inevitably haunt almost all athletes, including football players.

Occupational diseases of runners

Athletics and running are popular sports, especially among young people. But if you run professionally, can this adversely affect your health?

Of course, like any other sport, running is fraught with injuries or diseases of the musculoskeletal system. What kind of diseases can we talk about:

  • tendonitis of the ankle, resulting from overload of the calf muscles;
  • pain in the patella (the so-called "runner's knee" syndrome) - occurs as a result of incorrect extension of the knee;
  • syndrome iliac-tibial fascia - appears when the foot is landing on the background of a straightened knee;
  • inflammatory process in the periosteum of the tibia;
  • fasciitis of the thick tendon of the plantar part of the foot - develops when the foot is strongly repelled from the surface;
  • damage to muscle fibers of the hips, calves, and tendons;
  • overload of the spine;
  • fractures and cracks in the ankle bones.

A large number of diseases develops as a result of injuries that the runner receives when the correct running technique is not followed, as well as imperfect tracks and coatings.

Professional disease of tennis players

The most typical occupational disease of tennis players is the so-called "tennis elbow", or traumatic epicondylitis - a disease associated with a constant and excessive load on the upper limb. Pathology is characterized by microtraumas of the tendons of the extensors of the hand and fingers.

There is also the possibility of minor damage, which can include bruises, calluses on the feet and palms.

Among other injuries are:

  • stretching and ligament rupture;
  • dislocations and subluxations;
  • arthritis of the shoulder joint;
  • damage to the peripodal muscles and ligaments;
  • herniated intervertebral discs, spondylolisthesis;
  • trauma of the lumbosacral vertebrae.

Tennis players with experience often develop inflammatory processes: tendinitis, tendovaginitis, deforming osteoarthritis and migelosis.

Professional disease of boxers

Boxing is a spectacular event, but extremely dangerous for the boxers themselves. The risk of injury in this sport is one of the highest, because the number of strokes that an athlete can miss in one fight is estimated in dozens.

Of course, most often to the development of diseases lead to frequent and numerous injuries, but sometimes there is enough and one stroke to cause such a complication, such as retrograde amnesia.

Often, boxers have problems with hearing organs. In addition to directly reducing hearing, tinnitus, dizziness, and distress of the vestibular apparatus may appear.

Not infrequently craniocerebral trauma, fractures of the bones of the nose, bruises and dissections. All such traumas can in the future have negative consequences, in the form of development of disorders of cerebral circulation, convulsive syndrome, paresis and paralysis.

Strong strokes in the hull can provoke damage to the internal organs, including ruptures of the liver and spleen, which can lead to disability and even death.

Professional diseases of bicycle racers

The bike was created not only for movement, but also for health promotion. However, professional cyclists sometimes do not differ by this very health, because cycling is both traumas and other pathologies of the musculoskeletal system.

What occupational diseases of cyclists occur more often than others?

  • Damage to the muscles and ligaments of the shoulder girdle, spine and lower limbs.
  • Disorders of the vestibular apparatus.
  • Injuries: bruises, sprains, fractures, dislocations.
  • Damage and disturbances in the function of the reproductive organs.
  • Cramps, muscle spasms.
  • Cardiovascular pathologies (hypertension, varicose veins, infarction, thrombophlebitis).

In this case, the most common diseases among cyclists are arthrosis of the knee joint with deformity, neuritis and tendovaginitis.

Professional diseases of mountaineers

Professional climbers or climbers are people who daily put their lives and health at a certain risk. It does not matter which mountaineering you are talking about - industrial or sports: both types of activities have a significant impact on the health of a person.

Among the mountain climbers and climbers, such pathologies are especially common:

  • burns and frostbites;
  • problems with ligaments, tendons, cartilages and bones (fractures, sprains, tears, dislocations, etc.);
  • diseases of the digestive system (gastritis, enterocolitis, cholecystitis, pancreatitis, etc.);
  • diseases of the respiratory system (laryngitis, sinusitis, frontal sinuses, bronchitis, pneumonia);
  • ARI and ARVI;
  • Mountain (altitude) disease, resulting from a lack of oxygen in the inspired air when climbing to a high altitude;
  • changes in the cardiovascular system (myocardial hypoxia, hypertension, tachyarrhythmia);
  • diseases associated with changes in atmospheric pressure, including nasal, gastric and pulmonary hemorrhage.

It is important to know!

Sports heart - a set of structural and functional changes that occur in the heart of people who exercise for more than 1 hour almost every day. The condition does not cause subjective complaints. Read more..

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