Why do we need proteins, carbohydrates and fats?
These are micronutrients that saturate our body with useful substances and provide energy for growth, life and work. Minerals and vitamins are elements of our body's nutrition, which we need relatively little.
A person gets glucose from carbohydrates. It is the source of energy for man. Glucose can also be obtained from fats, proteins, to use it as fuel for cells. The body burns glucose, and in return produces energy.
Carbohydrates can quickly transform into glucose already at the time when a person chews. Carbohydrates can provide a fast transition of glucose to energy (simple carbohydrates) and slow (complex carbohydrates).
Simple carbohydrates are in the food that contains starch. These are potatoes, bread, cereals, biscuits and all flour, fruit juices, alcohol.
Complex carbohydrates are in vegetables, cereals, fruits, though not processed. Complex carbohydrates are good because they feed our body with fiber - soluble (pectin and fruit) and insoluble (celery).
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Fats and proteins
These substances participate in the processes of metabolism, promote the production of glucose, participate in energy metabolism and help restore energy. This energy bomb is still active for 5-6 hours after the person ate.
Glucose is necessary to people constantly, without it the brain can not fully work. Therefore, glucose should come from food not in small and small doses, but evenly, throughout the day.
To do this, you need to balance the diet and eat at approximately the same frequency, so that the body can process glucose and deliver it to the body throughout the day. That is, it is desirable to eat preferably 5-6 times a day in divided doses, with equal intervals.
If a person eats a lot, then a little, glucose enters the body unevenly, and the brain works poorly at these intervals. You can feel general weakness, drowsiness, fatigue.
Carbohydrates and their properties for weight loss
For several years, since the 60s of the last century, the press has cultivated the idea that carbohydrates contribute to a set of excess weight. For this they were recommended to be excluded from the diet in general. Then the opinion of the doctors changed, and carbohydrates were recommended to be used in the diet, but beware of excessive weight. That is, the opinion that carbohydrates are useful, but the excess weight to which they resulted is harmful, it was impractical.
There was no clear guidance on how to apply carbohydrates and whether to apply them at all.
The journals specified that fat deposits on the human body were formed from the fact that people ate fat. Even later, doctors said that the extra pounds in a person are formed not because of eating fatty foods, but because of its too high calorie content.
What kind of opinion would be useful and practical for controlling weight? How and how much can you use fats, proteins and carbohydrates?
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Important tips for weight control
If the size of your body is close to the ideal (that is, the ratio of height and weight), you can try several diets and stay on the optimal diet, which includes both fats, proteins, and carbohydrates. That is, to apply in practice already a certified course of nutrition.
If a woman after 30 starts to recover, then you need to choose the form of carbohydrates, which will control the process of weight normalization. That is, allow yourself to choose a carbohydrate menu and do not get better because of the excessive calorie content of food. Simple carbohydrates - a source of excess weight, if you eat them in excess. This flour, potatoes, fruit juices with the addition of sugar, candy, cakes, chocolates.
All these products contribute to increased production of insulin, which has the property of retaining fat in the body.
Carbohydrates and Diseases
If a person's thyroid gland is not working well, its functions are broken, and there is little carbohydrate in the diet, the brain begins to receive signals from the SOS that the organism is starving. And then the brain sends an impulse to the thyroid gland about this hunger.
The thyroid gland immediately reacts with an increase in the production of hormones T3 and T4. But T3 in this situation has the property of binding to protein substances in the blood and will act no longer so actively, will cease to fulfill its role of activating metabolic processes.
When the hormone T3 binds, the metabolism is disturbed and slowed down. Thus, fat tissue accumulates more than you planned. The balance of the thyroid gland is broken, and the absence or small amount of carbohydrates further aggravates this process. Diseases of the thyroid gland are not only obvious, but also hidden, so you need to be on the alert before cutting carbohydrates from the menu.
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The norm of carbohydrates for women
Of course, these norms are individual, but the general recommendations are approximately the same. For women aged 30-40, the norm of carbohydrates should be up to 40% of the total diet every day.
In carbohydrates, calories (energy units) are less than in fats - 4 calories in 1 gram. But this energy is spent more than after consuming fats. If a woman eats enough vegetables, fruits and sprouted cereals, she gets enough energy from consuming complex carbohydrates.
This increases the level of glucose, which means that the energy level is greater than after the inclusion of simple carbohydrates in the menu. But this means that a woman needs to move more at the same time and check the hormonal balance, without which any diet will be ineffective. A woman who consumes enough complex carbohydrates makes prevention of an insulin spike (when the insulin level rises sharply).
Correctly formulated carbohydrate menu makes it possible to avoid increasing blood sugar, but prevents the drop in its level. Carbohydrates in the menu help other substances to absorb better and faster, to supply the body with enough fiber, carbohydrates permanently give a feeling of satiety, so the woman will not replenish her supplies in the stomach, because she does not feel malnutrition. So, will not accumulate fatty deposits.
Proteins and fats should also be balanced, this will help them digest carbohydrates better.
Proteins and their properties
The properties of proteins are so diverse that they are capable of forming up to 30 kinds of amino acids. A amino acid - a building material for the production of their own proteins. They are needed in order for a person to grow, muscle and bone tissues developed and restored with damage, immunity increased to fight diseases.
The body constantly undergoes metabolic processes, and proteins contribute to this. They are processed into glucose as a result of metabolism, and the person receives energy for life. Amino acids help a person to form mediators for the construction of hormones of endorphins and enkephalin substances that improve mood and overall well-being.
1 gram of protein is 4 kilocalories. That is, just as many people receive energy from 1 gram of protein. Proteins are converted into glucose much weaker and longer than carbohydrates. For comparison: from carbohydrates glucose is processed within 1-2 hours after their intake, and from proteins - for almost 4 hours after taking protein food.
Proteins after the conversion of glucose help maintain a constant level in the blood of sugars, and the level of energy at the same time.
So, both proteins and carbohydrates are necessary for us to maintain life energy, the level of metabolism. Therefore, a person should take food in equal portions to ensure these exchanges throughout the day.
Amino acids and their properties
Amino acids come in two categories: natural, which the body produces itself, nor called non-essential, and come into the body from food from the outside - they are called irreplaceable. The first is produced more - up to 80%, the second - coming from food - irreplaceable - less - up to 20%.
Irreplaceable amino acids nine: lysine, leucine, methionine, isoleucine, histidine, tryptophan, valine, phenylalanine, threonine. Essential amino acids are very important for the body, because they help to cope with pain symptoms and saturate the cells of the body with oxygen.
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Amino acids are contained in proteins
Food of animal origin, which contains all the amino acids, is meat, fish, eggs, cheeses, poultry. These are high-grade proteins, with which a person is saturated very quickly. In this menu there are not only proteins and amino acids, but also fats. True, there is no fat in lean types of meat and fish, as well as dairy products with low fat content.
If a person does not eat meat, he needs to combine the diet so as to get proteins and fats from other foods, at least from plants. But the plants need to be combined in such a way that the proteins and fats are fully represented in them. For example, rice and beans will provide both proteins and amino acids. But those who suffer from excess weight, we must also follow the calorie content of foods, and their saturation with starch. In this combination of starch a lot, it may not be suitable for fat people. In addition, starch can provoke an insulin release in the body.
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Fats and their properties
Biologically fats look like rings, which are fastened to chains in the form of links. When food is processed in the body, fatty acids penetrate the blood. They are converted into glucose, but very slowly. Therefore, the level of glucose in the body increases quite slowly through the processing of fats.
But the level of glucose and falls just as slowly. Fats for a long time - for several hours - provides a person feeling saturated. From this it is easier to control the weight, because a person after eating fat for a long time does not feel hungry.
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What are the fats
Animals - that is, saturated, plant - that is, polyunsaturated, and monounsaturated. These are kinds of fats. If fat in the body is enough, fat-soluble vitamins are perfectly absorbed into the blood and give a very good effect, providing vital activity of the body.
Fatty acids that enter the body with fats give the person the opportunity to produce hormones, including basic ones, for example, testosterone, estrogen, progesterone. These hormones are the merit of the reproductive system, which generates them.
Consequences of the rejection of fats
If a person refuses fat, then hormones will stop dramatically, and in women this leads to negative health consequences. Premature termination of the production of hormones by the ovaries leads to an early climax and a negative state, which is connected with this. That is, the ebb and flow of heat, fever, headaches and so on.
Studies show that such women risk also the appearance of bleeding, clogged blood vessels, the onset of a stroke. Women who refuse to eat fat on the menu can suddenly increase their blood pressure or observe their jumps, not to mention the uncontrolled excess weight.
There is evidence that a diet in which too little fat leads not only to an increase in blood pressure, but also to the destruction of the brain vessels, as well as to the risk of their rupture.
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Fats and calories
From one gram of fat a person can get a lot more calories than from proteins and carbohydrates - as much as 9 calories. Therefore, a lot of fats in the diet is an overabundance of energy that we do not use and which is converted into fatty tissue.
But, in addition, in order to control the amount of fat in the diet, you also need to pay attention to the form in which they are contained. For example, olive oil contains unsaturated fats, and in animal (fat, for example) - saturated. But in both products, the same number of calories.
So: to include in the diet of olive oil is more useful than fat. Unsaturated fatty acids need to be supplied to the body more than saturated.
Fats and Stomach
Fats are high in calories, and yet we can use them more than the prescribed, because they do not occupy much space in the stomach. This fiber takes up a lot of space in the digestive tract, and also swells to the same, so we can not eat much of it. It is necessary to control the amount of fat in the diet, we do not want to recover because of their overabundance.
If the diet of fats and proteins is picked up incorrectly, then it may disturb the bolus in the abdomen, swelling, constipation, excess weight. Especially these symptoms can manifest in the second half of the menstrual cycle, when the body is more vulnerable due to increased production of hormones.
To properly calculate your menu, you need to put in it no more than 30% of fat, and most of them must be unsaturated. Then the rest of the amount of useful substances a person will receive along with proteins - the protein menu.
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Fats can oversaturate the body, provided that you do not know about the hidden fats entering there. Even if you strictly observe the norm of the fatty menu, you may not know about trans fats, which oversaturate the foods. For example, trans fats in margarines, chocolate, sweets, cake, cookies. In order not to fall into the trap of hidden fats, you need to read the composition of the products - all that you buy.
Even if the label says "0% fat" or "fat-free", this does not mean that they do not have trans fats, which indicates a low quality of products. Cheap products contain fats that do not have value as nutrients, but have many calories. Such products can negate all your efforts to lose weight.
Therefore, take care of yourself and use only high-quality products without trans fats.