Low-carb diet shifts the role of energy source to fat. Usually it is drawn from glycogen, into which glucose is converted as a result of exchange reactions. The depletion of its reserves leads to the fact that they begin to use their own fat reserves.
The essence of the diet is to eliminate fast carbohydrates from the diet, to minimize complex, saturation of the body with proteins, fiber, and nutrients. Its other rules include fractional and frequent meals, abundant drinking (a necessary condition for the assimilation of proteins), the first meal to be organized an hour after waking up, the last 2 hours before sleep. Sweet, flour, soda, fast food, sweet berries and fruits, marinades, mayonnaise, smoked products are completely excluded from the diet.
Atkins Low Carb Diet
Its main phase is designed for 2 weeks, but it lasts much longer, promises weight loss up to 10 kg. Its author, American cardiologist Robert Atkins, based on research, has specially developed to combat his overweight. The diet is also called "Hollywood" because of its successful use by many celebrities.
The main rule of such nutrition is the complete exclusion of carbohydrates from the menu. In fact, it is a protein, because it is dominated by proteins, but fats are not excluded. It is believed that in tandem they contribute to weight loss.
Atkins diet consists of 4 stages. The duration of the first 14 days, during which carbohydrate intake is reduced to 20g per day. At this stage, major changes occur in the metabolism, the process of ketosis begins, i.e. The body does not produce enough glucose to form insulin.
In the following stages, carbohydrates are gradually added to the menu every week, while body weight is controlled. As soon as he stopped to decline, take the last number of them for the rate of consumption.
The advantage of this diet is the absence of hunger, because proteins are well saturated.
Dr. Bernstein's Low Carb Diet
Designed for diabetics and is a guide to the normalization of blood glucose. It was originally developed for itself by trial and error, because it suffered from this disease. Thanks to the manufacture of the first glucometers at the plant where he worked, it was possible to trace the glycemic level at different times of the day, to identify the pattern of its change due to eating and after insulin administration.
It turned out that by maintaining the blood glucose, you can live and work fully. In order to achieve recognition of his method, Bernstein had to learn from a doctor, publish his theory and, as its evidence, live with difficult diabetes to a ripe old age.
At the heart of the low-carb diet of Bernstein is a complete ban on foods such as any cereals, sugar, low-fat dairy products, berries and fruits. In parallel, insulin is used (for type 1 diabetes), sugar-lowering drugs, the dynamics of sugar indices are traced, the doses of drugs are individually adjusted.
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Enheld's low carb diet
Enkheld is a western nutritionist who has written more than one book on a low-carb, fatty diet that has become true bestsellers. A practicing doctor, he argues that there is no better way to get rid of extra pounds, how to consume fat, and that there is no connection between cardiovascular diseases and fatty foods.
The Enhalde diet prohibits sugar and sweeteners, foods containing starch (potatoes, rice, white and black bread, even whole grains), breakfast cereals, soft drinks, beer, margarine, sweet fruits and dried fruits.
But you can any meat, all kinds of fish, eggs, vegetables growing above the ground, butter, milk (except skim) and dairy products, cheeses, nuts, sour berries. A reasonable number of such root vegetables as carrots, beets, and radish are permissible.
For sweet teeth, good news is a message about the benefits of chocolate with a content of at least 70% cocoa, and alcohol lovers can occasionally afford some dry wine, brandy or whiskey, the main thing is that there is no sugar in them.
Dukan Low-carb Diet
Dealing with nutrition to help his friend fight obesity, Ducane developed a diet that allowed him to lose more than three kilograms per week. This gave him an impetus for further activities as a nutritionist. Now his work has been successfully applied by a large number of people in many countries.
Its diet is low-carb protein, the list of permitted foods includes as many as 72 items, there are no strict restrictions on the amount of food eaten, even seasonings can be used.
Also, be sure to drink a lot, all the time to include in the diet oat bran, moderately load yourself with exercise, make walking.
The Dukan diet consists of several phases, the duration of which depends on how much weight you need to lose. So, in order to get rid of 5 kg, the first phase “attack” lasts 2 days, the second “alternation” lasts 15 days, the third “fixation” lasts 50 days. To lose 10 kg you will need 3, 50 and 100 days, etc. There is also a final "stabilization", containing recommendations for further proper organization of their food, so as not to regain the lost weight.
The first stage involves a purely protein menu, without fats and carbohydrates, as well as 1.5 tablespoons of bran daily, plenty of liquid.
On the second, protein products and proteins alternate with vegetables. This can be a 1/1, 3/3 or 5/5 scheme, depending on how much you need to lose a kilogram. A larger gap, respectively, and more removes.
In the third phase - the products of the previous and a small amount of previously prohibited, for example, pasta, rice, potatoes, buckwheat, peas, pork, a few slices of bread.
"Stabilization" should be considered as a further way of nutrition in order to remain in the new weight: plentiful drink, several spoons of bran, unlimited proteins and vegetables, moderately 2 any starch containing products per day.
Low carb vegetarian diet
Is a low-carb diet suitable for vegetarians, because the usual source of proteins (meat, fish, eggs) is unacceptable for them? As a rule, this category of people is not overweight, but there may be carbohydrate intolerance, forcing them to minimize their consumption.
Vegans usually replenish their body with protein from beans and cereals, but they are rich in carbohydrates. A complete replacement of these products can make hemp seed. At 28g, its weight of 16g is made up of proteins, and they also have beneficial omega-3 fatty acids.
Other products on the menu include nuts, avocados, leafy salads, asparagus, vegetable oil, seaweed.
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Low Carb Diet for Pregnancy
In order for the baby to develop fully in the womb, the expectant mother needs to eat properly and in a balanced way. Any diet suffers from its one-sidedness, which means the fruit of something will get less. That is why the diet requires different food groups: fats, proteins, carbohydrates, trace elements, fiber, vitamins. Thus, a low carbohydrate diet for pregnant women is contraindicated.
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Menu for the week with a low-carb diet
In addition to foods rich in carbohydrates, a large list of those with which you can diversify your menu with a low-carb diet. Each power system offers its own scheme, but the menu for the week can be this:
- breakfast - 2 boiled eggs, grapefruit, tea;
- 2nd breakfast - a slice of cheese, lettuce leaves;
- lunch - boiled chicken breast, vegetable salad;
- afternoon tea - yogurt;
- dinner - baked fish.
- breakfast - cottage cheese casserole, poured with sour cream, coffee;
- 2nd breakfast - cabbage and carrot salad;
- lunch - fish, asparagus;
- afternoon tea - kefir;
- dinner - meat and grilled vegetables.
- breakfast - omelet with vegetables;
- 2nd breakfast - salad with avocado and shrimps;
- dinner - mushroom soup without potatoes with sour cream, a slice of whole-grain bread;
- lunch - cottage cheese;
- dinner - boiled veal, greens.
- breakfast - oatmeal without sugar and butter;
- 2nd breakfast - baked sour apples;
- lunch - meatballs, salad;
- snack - grape;
- dinner - vegetable stew.
- breakfast - cottage cheese, coffee;
- 2nd breakfast - cucumber salad, tomato, pepper, dressed with olive oil;
- lunch - chicken meat, broccoli, cauliflower;
- afternoon tea - yogurt;
- dinner - 2 eggs, vegetable salad.
- breakfast - milk buckwheat porridge;
- 2nd breakfast - grapefruit;
- lunch - chicken broth soup, toast bread;
- afternoon tea - kefir;
- dinner - grilled eggplants, fish.
- breakfast - egg and squid salad, apple;
- 2nd breakfast - Greek salad;
- dinner - red borsch, small loaf;
- afternoon tea - grapefruit;
- dinner - baked mackerel with vegetables inside.
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Type 2 diabetes menu
In case of type 2 diabetes, fast carbohydrates should be excluded from the menu, since they lead to a sharp jump in glucose in the blood. All products whose glycemic index exceeds 50-55 units should not be ingested. The above menu may well be used to feed diabetics. Also relevant diet cooking methods, low-fat varieties of fish and meat, dairy products.
Low carb diet menu for 2 weeks
For lovers of hard methods to achieve weight loss in a short period, there are more stringent diets. Menu low-carb diet for 2 weeks (foods per day are divided into several meals).
- 1st - 200g of chicken meat, 300 ml of juice from vegetables, 2 cups of water, a glass of green tea, decoctions of herbs (chamomile, melissa, rosehip). Drinking is important for every day of the whole period of the diet;
- 2nd - a handful of nuts, half a grapefruit, tomatoes, a piece of boiled fish, kefir;
- 3rd — apple, steamed meat;
- 4th - a portion of vegetable stew, steam meatballs with lean meat;
- 5th — boiled egg, pea soup, 150g chicken, yogurt;
- 6th — 2 oranges, a glass of milk, an omelette of 2-egg proteins;
- 7th - 200g of red fish, vegetable salad, coffee without sugar;
- 8th - a few slices of hard cheese, boiled chicken;
- 9th — vegetable soup, scrambled eggs, kefir, coffee;
- 10th — nuts, grapefruit, rice-free wild rice;
- 11th - 150g of steam beef, cabbage and carrot salad;
- 12th - lentil soup, 100g of ham, banana, coffee;
- 13th - vegetarian soup, loaf;
- 14th - abundant drinks, kefir, nuts.
This diet is suitable only for healthy people. For even longer low-carb diets, for example, for a month, you can use the Dukan system and stick to its menu.
Low Carb Diet Recipes
How to cook with a low carbohydrate diet prompt numerous recipes.
- Soups They can be prepared both on water and in broth.
Vegetable includes such ingredients: broccoli, cauliflower, a little carrot, tomato, onion (potatoes are not used). The heads are divided into inflorescences, the rest is cut, dipped in boiling liquid, brought to readiness.
Soup with mushrooms: chopped champignons, shredded processed cheese, onions are put into the broth, chopped dill is at the very end of cooking.
Soup with cabbage: shredded cabbage, sweet pepper, green peas cooked in water, dressed with a spoon of olive oil.
- Kashi. Important in the diet menu, because are a source of fiber and many nutrients. For low-carb diets, you need to choose cereals with the highest protein content. These include buckwheat, oatmeal, not very common in our area quinoa. Cooking carried out on water or natural milk without sugar.
Vitamins with a low carbohydrate diet
Being on a diet with low carbohydrate levels, the body suffers from a lack of vitamin C. Together with the B vitamins, it helps break down carbohydrates. Without D, calcium is not absorbed. Chromium and zinc are also required for exchange reactions. Therefore, sitting on a low-carb diet, you can not use individual vitamins, and pick up vitamin-mineral complexes. This will help the consultation of the doctor.
Low Carb Diet and Metformin
Metmorphine - a drug that reduces blood sugar. He is drunk by diabetics, and sometimes taken for weight loss. If the diet already contains little carbohydrates, then what about metformin? It is recommended to use it in order to lose weight in case of diabetes with obesity, aggravation of the disease with hypertension, elevated levels of cholesterol, violation of the cardiovascular system, and in other special cases.
The use of the drug can be safe if the caloric intake does not fall below 1200kkal per day, while alcohol should be absent, although low-carb alcoholic beverages (dry wine, whiskey, carbonless beer) are not forbidden when dieting without metformin.
Metmorphine begin to drink with a small dose - 500 mg per day at night, after dinner. After 1-2 weeks, it is increased and gradually adjusted to 1500-2000mg.
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