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Low carb diet for women, men, diabetes

, medical expert
Last reviewed: 11.04.2020
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Carbohydrates are organic compounds and are present in all cells and tissues of living organisms. Without them, life is impossible. According to their structure, they are divided into simple and complex, namely the first - fast, with a high glycemic index, instantly split, do not have time to turn into energy and are deposited under the skin in the form of fat deposits. Low-carb diet aims to saturate the diet with protein and minimize carbohydrates in it.

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Indications

Being overweight not only adversely affects a person’s appearance, but also carries health risks. It entails the risk of cardiovascular diseases, the development of diabetes, this is an excessive load on the joints and the spine, leading to their pathologies. Therefore, the benefits of low-carb diets are obvious - to lose weight, to prevent the risk of developing diseases or to promote their treatment.

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Low-carb diet for type 2 and type 1 diabetes

The absorption of proteins and fats is much slower than carbohydrates. It helps to reduce insulin release and is used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. The first recommendations to patients in identifying the disease - to lose weight and eat right. A diet with a low glycemic index has been shown to be effective in reducing blood glucose levels.

Although type 1 diabetes is insulin-dependent and makes it possible with the help of a hormone to adjust sugar depending on the consumption of carbohydrates, it is best to avoid its jumps through nutrition. In diabetics of this group, insulin is not produced at all by the pancreas, therefore, it is necessary to determine its dose by counting carbohydrates.

When applying a low carbohydrate diet in type 1 diabetes, it is necessary to take this circumstance into account in order not to provoke a hypoglycemic coma.

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Low-carb diet with high cholesterol

Cholesterol is a fatty alcohol, 80% of which is produced by the body, the rest comes from food. It is divided into high and low density compounds. The latter are called "bad cholesterol", because they are deposited on the inner walls of the vessels, blocking them. This leads to strokes and heart attacks. Active lifestyle, reduction of bad habits and reduction of consumed fats, namely fatty dairy products, butter, meat helps to reduce their ratio, reduce harmful habits. Very useful raw vegetables and fruits, juices with high carbohydrate content. Therefore, a low-carb diet with high cholesterol cannot be applied. See also:  Diet with high cholesterol

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Low Carb Diet for Hypertension

Hypertension is characterized by an increase in blood pressure and makes it felt headaches, noise in the head, dizziness, nausea, front sights, rapid heartbeat. In addition to poor condition, it is fraught with danger to life, because entails heart failure, hemorrhage.

The causes of the disease are different: from hereditary to the wrong lifestyle, nutrition, excess weight. For weight loss in hypertension, you can use a short low-carb diet in the event that the disease is not accompanied by high cholesterol, is not burdened by atherosclerosis.

Desirable products on the table hypertonic are dried apricots, raisins, bananas, honey, vegetables. Restrictions are imposed on animal fats, salt, alcohol.

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Low carb diets for weight loss

Nutritionists have developed many nutrition systems based on restricting carbohydrate intake. In some of them, emphasis is placed on proteins - protein low-carb diets, in others on fats - high-fat ones. Imagine some of the most popular.

General information of the low carb diet

Low-carb diet shifts the role of energy source to fat. Usually it is drawn from glycogen, into which glucose is converted as a result of exchange reactions. The depletion of its reserves leads to the fact that they begin to use their own fat reserves.

The essence of the diet is to eliminate fast carbohydrates from the diet, to minimize complex, saturation of the body with proteins, fiber, and nutrients. Its other rules include fractional and frequent meals, abundant drinking (a necessary condition for the assimilation of proteins), the first meal to be organized an hour after waking up, the last 2 hours before sleep. Sweet, flour, soda, fast food, sweet berries and fruits, marinades, mayonnaise, smoked products are completely excluded from the diet.

Atkins Low Carb Diet

Its main phase is designed for 2 weeks, but it lasts much longer, promises weight loss up to 10 kg. Its author, American cardiologist Robert Atkins, based on research, has specially developed to combat his overweight. The diet is also called "Hollywood" because of its successful use by many celebrities.

The main rule of such nutrition is the complete exclusion of carbohydrates from the menu. In fact, it is a protein, because it is dominated by proteins, but fats are not excluded. It is believed that in tandem they contribute to weight loss.

Atkins diet consists of 4 stages. The duration of the first 14 days, during which carbohydrate intake is reduced to 20g per day. At this stage, major changes occur in the metabolism, the process of ketosis begins, i.e. The body does not produce enough glucose to form insulin.

In the following stages, carbohydrates are gradually added to the menu every week, while body weight is controlled. As soon as he stopped to decline, take the last number of them for the rate of consumption.

The advantage of this diet is the absence of hunger, because proteins are well saturated.

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Dr. Bernstein's Low Carb Diet

Designed for diabetics and is a guide to the normalization of blood glucose. It was originally developed for itself by trial and error, because it suffered from this disease. Thanks to the manufacture of the first glucometers at the plant where he worked, it was possible to trace the glycemic level at different times of the day, to identify the pattern of its change due to eating and after insulin administration.

It turned out that by maintaining the blood glucose, you can live and work fully. In order to achieve recognition of his method, Bernstein had to learn from a doctor, publish his theory and, as its evidence, live with difficult diabetes to a ripe old age.

At the heart of the low-carb diet of Bernstein is a complete ban on foods such as any cereals, sugar, low-fat dairy products, berries and fruits. In parallel, insulin is used (for type 1 diabetes), sugar-lowering drugs, the dynamics of sugar indices are traced, the doses of drugs are individually adjusted.

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Enheld's low carb diet

Enkheld is a western nutritionist who has written more than one book on a low-carb, fatty diet that has become true bestsellers. A practicing doctor, he argues that there is no better way to get rid of extra pounds, how to consume fat, and that there is no connection between cardiovascular diseases and fatty foods.

The Enhalde diet prohibits sugar and sweeteners, foods containing starch (potatoes, rice, white and black bread, even whole grains), breakfast cereals, soft drinks, beer, margarine, sweet fruits and dried fruits.

But you can any meat, all kinds of fish, eggs, vegetables growing above the ground, butter, milk (except skim) and dairy products, cheeses, nuts, sour berries. A reasonable number of such root vegetables as carrots, beets, and radish are permissible.

For sweet teeth, good news is a message about the benefits of chocolate with a content of at least 70% cocoa, and alcohol lovers can occasionally afford some dry wine, brandy or whiskey, the main thing is that there is no sugar in them.

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Dukan Low-carb Diet

Dealing with nutrition to help his friend fight obesity, Ducane developed a diet that allowed him to lose more than three kilograms per week. This gave him an impetus for further activities as a nutritionist. Now his work has been successfully applied by a large number of people in many countries.

Its diet is low-carb protein, the list of permitted foods includes as many as 72 items, there are no strict restrictions on the amount of food eaten, even seasonings can be used.

Also, be sure to drink a lot, all the time to include in the diet oat bran, moderately load yourself with exercise, make walking.

The Dukan diet consists of several phases, the duration of which depends on how much weight you need to lose. So, in order to get rid of 5 kg, the first phase “attack” lasts 2 days, the second “alternation” lasts 15 days, the third “fixation” lasts 50 days. To lose 10 kg you will need 3, 50 and 100 days, etc. There is also a final "stabilization", containing recommendations for further proper organization of their food, so as not to regain the lost weight.

The first stage involves a purely protein menu, without fats and carbohydrates, as well as 1.5 tablespoons of bran daily, plenty of liquid.

On the second, protein products and proteins alternate with vegetables. This can be a 1/1, 3/3 or 5/5 scheme, depending on how much you need to lose a kilogram. A larger gap, respectively, and more removes.

In the third phase - the products of the previous and a small amount of previously prohibited, for example, pasta, rice, potatoes, buckwheat, peas, pork, a few slices of bread.

"Stabilization" should be considered as a further way of nutrition in order to remain in the new weight: plentiful drink, several spoons of bran, unlimited proteins and vegetables, moderately 2 any starch containing products per day.

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Low carb vegetarian diet

Is a low-carb diet suitable for vegetarians, because the usual source of proteins (meat, fish, eggs) is unacceptable for them? As a rule, this category of people is not overweight, but there may be carbohydrate intolerance, forcing them to minimize their consumption.

Vegans usually replenish their body with protein from beans and cereals, but they are rich in carbohydrates. A complete replacement of these products can make hemp seed. At 28g, its weight of 16g is made up of proteins, and they also have beneficial omega-3 fatty acids.

Other products on the menu include nuts, avocados, leafy salads, asparagus, vegetable oil, seaweed.

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Low Carb Diet for Pregnancy

In order for the baby to develop fully in the womb, the expectant mother needs to eat properly and in a balanced way. Any diet suffers from its one-sidedness, which means the fruit of something will get less. That is why the diet requires different food groups: fats, proteins, carbohydrates, trace elements, fiber, vitamins. Thus, a low carbohydrate diet for pregnant women is contraindicated.

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Menu for the week with a low-carb diet

In addition to foods rich in carbohydrates, a large list of those with which you can diversify your menu with a low-carb diet. Each power system offers its own scheme, but the menu for the week can be this:

1st day: 

  • breakfast - 2 boiled eggs, grapefruit, tea;
  • 2nd breakfast - a slice of cheese, lettuce leaves;
  • lunch - boiled chicken breast, vegetable salad;
  • afternoon tea - yogurt;
  • dinner - baked fish.

2nd day: 

  • breakfast - cottage cheese casserole, poured with sour cream, coffee;
  • 2nd breakfast - cabbage and carrot salad;
  • lunch - fish, asparagus;
  • afternoon tea - kefir;
  • dinner - meat and grilled vegetables.

3rd day: 

  • breakfast - omelet with vegetables;
  • 2nd breakfast - salad with avocado and shrimps;
  • dinner - mushroom soup without potatoes with sour cream, a slice of whole-grain bread;
  • lunch - cottage cheese;
  • dinner - boiled veal, greens.

4th day: 

  • breakfast - oatmeal without sugar and butter;
  • 2nd breakfast - baked sour apples;
  • lunch - meatballs, salad;
  • snack - grape;
  • dinner - vegetable stew.

5th day: 

  • breakfast - cottage cheese, coffee;
  • 2nd breakfast - cucumber salad, tomato, pepper, dressed with olive oil;
  • lunch - chicken meat, broccoli, cauliflower;
  • afternoon tea - yogurt;
  • dinner - 2 eggs, vegetable salad.

6th day: 

  • breakfast - milk buckwheat porridge;
  • 2nd breakfast - grapefruit;
  • lunch - chicken broth soup, toast bread;
  • afternoon tea - kefir;
  • dinner - grilled eggplants, fish.

7th day: 

  • breakfast - egg and squid salad, apple;
  • 2nd breakfast - Greek salad;
  • dinner - red borsch, small loaf;
  • afternoon tea - grapefruit;
  • dinner - baked mackerel with vegetables inside.

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Type 2 diabetes menu

In case of type 2 diabetes, fast carbohydrates should be excluded from the menu, since they lead to a sharp jump in glucose in the blood. All products whose glycemic index exceeds 50-55 units should not be ingested. The above menu may well be used to feed diabetics. Also relevant diet cooking methods, low-fat varieties of fish and meat, dairy products.

Low carb diet menu for 2 weeks

For lovers of hard methods to achieve weight loss in a short period, there are more stringent diets. Menu low-carb diet for 2 weeks (foods per day are divided into several meals).

Days:

  • 1st - 200g of chicken meat, 300 ml of juice from vegetables, 2 cups of water, a glass of green tea, decoctions of herbs (chamomile, melissa, rosehip). Drinking is important for every day of the whole period of the diet;
  • 2nd - a handful of nuts, half a grapefruit, tomatoes, a piece of boiled fish, kefir;
  • 3rd — apple, steamed meat;
  • 4th - a portion of vegetable stew, steam meatballs with lean meat;
  • 5th — boiled egg, pea soup, 150g chicken, yogurt;
  • 6th — 2 oranges, a glass of milk, an omelette of 2-egg proteins;
  • 7th - 200g of red fish, vegetable salad, coffee without sugar;
  • 8th - a few slices of hard cheese, boiled chicken;
  • 9th — vegetable soup, scrambled eggs, kefir, coffee;
  • 10th — nuts, grapefruit, rice-free wild rice;
  • 11th - 150g of steam beef, cabbage and carrot salad;
  • 12th - lentil soup, 100g of ham, banana, coffee;
  • 13th - vegetarian soup, loaf;
  • 14th - abundant drinks, kefir, nuts.

This diet is suitable only for healthy people. For even longer low-carb diets, for example, for a month, you can use the Dukan system and stick to its menu.

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Low Carb Diet Recipes

How to cook with a low carbohydrate diet prompt numerous recipes.

  • Soups They can be prepared both on water and in broth.

Vegetable includes such ingredients: broccoli, cauliflower, a little carrot, tomato, onion (potatoes are not used). The heads are divided into inflorescences, the rest is cut, dipped in boiling liquid, brought to readiness.

Soup with mushrooms: chopped champignons, shredded processed cheese, onions are put into the broth, chopped dill is at the very end of cooking.

Soup with cabbage: shredded cabbage, sweet pepper, green peas cooked in water, dressed with a spoon of olive oil.

  • Kashi. Important in the diet menu, because are a source of fiber and many nutrients. For low-carb diets, you need to choose cereals with the highest protein content. These include buckwheat, oatmeal, not very common in our area quinoa. Cooking carried out on water or natural milk without sugar.

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Vitamins with a low carbohydrate diet

Being on a diet with low carbohydrate levels, the body suffers from a lack of vitamin C. Together with the B vitamins, it helps break down carbohydrates. Without D, calcium is not absorbed. Chromium and zinc are also required for exchange reactions. Therefore, sitting on a low-carb diet, you can not use individual vitamins, and pick up vitamin-mineral complexes. This will help the consultation of the doctor.

Low Carb Diet and Metformin

Metmorphine - a drug that reduces blood sugar. He is drunk by diabetics, and sometimes taken for weight loss. If the diet already contains little carbohydrates, then what about metformin? It is recommended to use it in order to lose weight in case of diabetes with obesity, aggravation of the disease with hypertension, elevated levels of cholesterol, violation of the cardiovascular system, and in other special cases.

The use of the drug can be safe if the caloric intake does not fall below 1200kkal per day, while alcohol should be absent, although low-carb alcoholic beverages (dry wine, whiskey, carbonless beer) are not forbidden when dieting without metformin.

Metmorphine begin to drink with a small dose - 500 mg per day at night, after dinner. After 1-2 weeks, it is increased and gradually adjusted to 1500-2000mg.

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What can and what can not?

Many products that can be used with a low-carb diet have already been mentioned many times before, but to summarize, we recall:

  • meat - veal, beef, rabbit meat, turkey meat, chicken, and offal;
  • vegetables - leafy, cabbage, zucchini, sweet pepper;
  • eggs;
  • fruits - grapefruits, oranges, lemons, currants, cranberries, strawberries, pomegranates, green apples;
  • nuts - walnut, almond, pine, pumpkin seeds, sunflower seeds, sesame;
  • dairy products - yogurt without filler, kefir, cottage cheese, sour cream, whole milk.

What can not eat? When observing a low-carb diet, it is categorically impossible to eat various sausages, confectionery, bread and buns, potatoes, rice, semolina, pasta, bananas, grapes, dates, figs, sugar. As in any diet, salting, smoking, sugary drinks, kisel, mayonnaise, ketchup, fatty sauces are unacceptable. Cooking methods such as frying in oil, frying are not suitable.

Contraindications

Low-carb diet is not recommended for pregnant, lactating women, children, adolescents.

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Possible risks

A carbohydrate deficiency can lead to dehydration, which puts the liver and kidneys at risk. There is also a lack of fiber, because of this reduced intestinal motility, there are constipation. The risks associated with diet include a decrease in brain activity, calcium deficiency, and an increase in cholesterol.

Another unpleasant side of the low-carb diet is ketosis. It is characterized by an increase in ketones - fragments of carbohydrate, a product of the breakdown of fats. They are formed in the liver from fatty acids. Possible complications are associated with the likelihood of intoxication, damage to vital organs: the liver and kidneys.

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Reviews

According to reviews of those who used a low-carb diet for weight loss, they actually managed to lose weight. Sometimes the result reached 10 kg per month. Many noted that it is given much easier than others, because not limited to proteins or fats (depending on which one was chosen).

Even as its dignity, they note that upon completion you don’t pounce on food. Observing moderation, you can long maintain the existing weight.

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