What is ovulation?

, medical expert
Last reviewed: 20.11.2021

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"What is ovulation and how to define it?" This question is relevant for those women who plan to conceive or vice versa, while they prefer to abstain from pregnancy. The fact of pregnancy or, more accurately, conception is the fusion of a sperm with a mature female egg. The egg passes the process of preparation - ripening in the ovaries, and then comes out of them. The period of release of the egg ready for fertilization is called ovulation, that is, ovulation. The word has a Latin root, denoting an egg (ovum).

In order to find out what ovulation is, you should follow the whole process from beginning to end. Ovaries contain a specific round formation - the follicle. It is in it that there is an ovum passing a cycle of development. The follicle containing the cell matures and develops with it for about two weeks. As the development bubble constantly produces female hormones - estrogens. Estrogens in turn affect the lining of the uterus, as if preparing it for possible conception. Two weeks later, when the cage is ready, the vesicle bursts, releasing the mature egg outward. The fallopian tube has thin protein outgrowths - the pili, which grasp the mature cell and promote it along with the fluid seeping from the burst follicles into the peritoneal cavity. Ovaries from the abdominal cavity quickly fall into the uterine, fallopian tube, which is also called the oviduct. It is in the lumen of the uterus that a decisive "encounter" of a mature cell and sperm can occur. Each cyclic period is characterized by the maturation of a multitude of follicular vesicles (up to several thousand), but only one of many thousands "ovulates." It turns out that only one egg can be fertilized - a single egg. An exception is the development of two ripened follicles, so there is a chance to give birth to twins (raznoyaytsevyh). While the mature cell is looking for a meeting with the spermatozoon, which is the most active of many of its siblings, the follicular vesicle is also transformed into a yellow body. The follicle contains lutein cells that have a characteristic yellowish tinge, and they start to multiply rapidly and release progesterone. The process of formation of the yellow body also lasts about two weeks, which is the second phase of the menstrual period. Now you have learned what ovulation is, and here's how to recognize it, read below.

What is the subjective feeling of ovulation?

  • Characteristic pain, pulling, tingling, usually in the lower abdomen; 
  • Increased sexual excitability; 
  • Some changes in vaginal discharge are more abundant (estrogen acts); 
  • Perhaps a slight swelling of the abdomen and swelling of the labia; 
  • Slight puffiness of the whole body; 
  • Unusual sensitivity of the skin, especially in the chest; 
  • A slight increase in mammary glands, it is possible their soreness.

How to determine ovulation?

Ovulation is determined using special test strips showing the level of lutein. Luteinizing hormone (LH) in the period of ovulation is very actively excreted, and its level is significantly increased. LH is present in urine, with the help of which the test can show how high the hormone content is in it.

Classically, the period of ovulation occurs between the 12th and 15th day with a standard cycle of 28 days. If the menstrual period is shorter, for example, 21 days, then ovulation may occur on the seventh day, starting from the beginning of the cycle.

The concept of conception interrupts ovulation. If conception does not occur, a mature cell dies in the oviduct and is excreted during menstrual bleeding. Then the cycle repeats.

What many women know about ovulation, this information helps to plan a pregnancy more carefully and consciously, or to be protected from it in a timely manner, and thus avoid abortion.

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