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How correctly to feed the schoolboy?

, medical expert
Last reviewed: 01.06.2018
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Successes in the schoolboy's studies depend largely on what the child is eating. But many parents are too busy to provide their child with rational nutrition, rich in nutrients. They either underfeed the child, giving him only vegetables and fruits, or overfed, trying to put a plate of son or daughter with more meat. How correctly to feed the schoolboy?

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School feeding errors

When a child grows up, his school load increases. A growing organism requires more food, yes it is more nutritious, but there is no time. Therefore, children buy food in touted fast food. From this grow fat, accumulate cholesterol in the blood, and fats - under the skin.

There is another extreme: girls-schoolgirls, preoccupied with their not an ideal figure (and how it can be ideal, girls are still developing), are obsessed with the idea of losing weight. So they cut their diet as they can, they live from diet to diet. As a result - wrong development, lack of useful substances, pallor, lethargy and apathy. To prevent this from happening, parents should clearly know what and how to feed the student, and be sure to clarify this to their children.

The need of a schoolboy in calories

In order to properly compose a student's diet, you need to consider several important things:

  • Calories per day
  • Which dishes contain how many calories
  • Weight and height of the child
  • Child's cravings for food
  • The tendency of the student to allergies

Calorie table for schoolchildren

Age

Calories per day

Proteins per day - g

Fat per day - g

Carbohydrates per day - g

6 years up to 2000 up to 75 up to 49 up to 280
7-10 years old  up to 2300 up to 87 up to 52 up to 322
11-13 years old (boy) 2400-2700 up to 102 up to 61 up to 378
11-13 years old (virgo) 2300-2500 up to 94 up to 56 up to 350
14-17 years old (boys) 2800-3000 up to 113 up to 68 up to 420
14-17 years old (virgins) 2400-2600 up to 98 up to 58 up to 384

Protein in the diet of a schoolboy

In the diet of a child who grows and at the same time spends a lot of time and energy on studying, there must necessarily be protein. If the protein is consumed, combining it with fats, then these dishes stay longer in the stomach and they need more time for digestion. This means that the student will stay full longer.

In the number of such products, containing both protein and fat, meat enters, first of all. But there is a nuance: you need to eat meat in the morning, and not in the evening. The fact is that meat products contain nitrogen compounds that can excite the central nervous system. If you eat meat for dinner, the child can not sleep for a long time, his sleep will be full of nightmares, and why you need it. It is necessary to learn that meat dishes include all kinds of meat, including dietary, from rabbits or poultry. The student's dinner should ideally consist of plants and milk or vegetable-milk dishes. They, on the contrary, have the property of calming the nervous system of the child, harassed for the day. It's not for nothing that since ancient times doctors advised: "If you want to calm down, drink a glass of milk."

Vegetable-milk food should be left for the evening also because it is absorbed faster, much faster than meat. That is, avoiding meat for the night, you protect your child's digestive system, which will rest at night. And filled with meat dishes, she would not know a break all night, because meat can be digested from 5-7 hours to 10, depending on how it is cooked.

Eggs are a unique product that is prepared very quickly. Only 5-7 minutes - and you cooked an egg, tasty and nutritious. Add a salad to it - and breakfast is ready for your favorite schoolboy. The number of eggs for a child must be correctly calculated. He put no more than 5 eggs a week, so do not get involved in them not to cause allergies and do not overload the small organism with cholesterol. If the child is very fond of eggs, and does not absorb them very well, you can use only protein, and throw the yolk into baking.

To ensure that a child can quickly and tasty snack in school, you can give him a nut kernel (nourishing and very good for the brain). A great source of protein! Supplemented with dried fruits, nuts also increase immunity.

Meat and fish bonuses

Meat - not only delicious, but also a useful product. It has a lot of iron, which is necessary for hemopoiesis. It's no secret that many schoolchildren are diagnosed with anemia (anemia) and iron deficiency in the blood. This can be avoided by including meat and buckwheat in the diet. Iron is in both vegetables and fruits, too, but taken from meat, it is digested much easier.

Fish is also a great source of protein. It is very well split and absorbed by the child's body, much better than meat proteins. The protein from which the fish is made has a unique structure: there is no connective tissue fiber - elastin, which retards digestion. In addition, fish have a mass of omega-3 fatty acids that help fight off enemy agents from the environment, in particular, bacteria and viruses that provoke the disease. Methionine in the composition of fish helps to assimilate protein, and it also promotes better absorption of fats, rather than their accumulation.

True, fish should also be chosen carefully. Very good fish in baked form, boiled or cooked for a couple. It is well absorbed. But the fish that were smoked, dried or canned, brings into the body of the schoolboy harmful uric acid, from which stones are formed in the kidneys and gall bladder, inflammation of the joints arises. Sodium in this fish also has a devastating effect: it delays fluid in the body and increases the risk of developing hypertension.

In sea fish, there is a lot of iodine, which is necessary for the development of the thyroid gland of children and good work of the entire endocrine system. Iodine also increases the level of intellectual development of the schoolboy and helps to get rid of diseases associated with goiter.

Sea kale as a gift of the sea is also very good in addition to meat and fish (better to fish). It can be added in dried form to cereals and salads - this is an excellent source of iodine. True, these products are not then salted - cabbage replaces salt.

Very useful advice for mothers who love to cook: to smell the smell of fish, which not everyone is happy when frying their scents on the entire apartment, you need to add a few slices of raw potatoes into the pan.

Do you need milk in the ration of a schoolboy?

In the schoolboy's menu there should be at least 60% protein food - this is a building material for the cells of the body, especially for nerve cells. Milk protein is very good for digestion, so if a child does not have lactose intolerance, he can drink at least one glass of milk per day. This volume can be brought to a liter, if the child loves milk.

Milk can not be replaced by anything - it is so unique product. But you need to consider that the milk from the cow, bought in the market, and milk in the supermarket contains a different number of calories. The difference can be double the norm, because in cow's milk more fat. It should also be taken into account that for calories 12 grams of milk powder is 100 grams of liquid milk or 25 grams of condensed milk. It is very good if the child drinks natural dairy products enriched with vitamins, minerals, iodinated protein. To make sure that the product does not contain flavorings and dyes, you need to carefully read its contents on the label.

It is better for a schoolboy not to give boiled milk, because when boiling, almost all useful substances, in particular, amino acids, are destroyed in it. Also you need to pay attention to low-fat products or those where the fat content is the lowest. They are better absorbed, and the content of nutrients are as rich as fatty milk products.

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Why do schoolboy amino acids?

Amino acids are necessary for a schoolchild for good growth and development. The most important amino acids for a child are histidine, tryptophan and lysine. They are found in very tasty and necessary products: fish, eggs, meat, cheese, seafood (in particular, squid), legumes, cottage cheese.

The best solution for the correct schoolboy menu is to do different days: the day is the fish. Day is meat. This will diversify the menu of the child and give him a set of all necessary for the development and growth of substances. Plus it's delicious.

For meat, dieticians are advised to give 3 days a week, for fish - 2-3. The child is better to offer dishes from fillets, and not with bones, and preferably not fried, but baked. Or boiled for a couple - for dietary purposes. Sausage and smoked products, as well as heavily salted fish and corned beef, should not be included in the ration of a schoolboy. In smoked products can contain preservatives and flavors, there are a lot of calories. Salty foods detain fluid in the body, which leads to excess weight, problems with the kidneys and urine outflow.

When parents prepare chicken or turkey, goose or duck meat, they need to peel off the skin, because it is not useful for digestion. If you still want to pamper the child with fried meat, cook it in a frying pan, where there is a grate, and the fat can drain. Excess fried fat is completely useless to the child - it is poorly digestible, very caloric, contains harmful carcinogens and, moreover, increases the level of harmful cholesterol in the blood, increasing the risk of cardiovascular diseases.

If soups or borschtes are prepared on fat, you need to wait until they cool, and remove the greasy film from their surface. In general, it is better to cook such dishes in refined oil - vegetable oils are absorbed much better and not so high in calories.

What is the danger of lack of fat in the schoolboy's menu?

To the child received all the necessary substances, it is not necessary to exclude from his diet fats. From fats do not recover, as many people mistakenly believe. On the contrary, fat helps to absorb more fat-soluble vitamins, in particular, carotenoids, which millet is necessary for good vision and blood saturation with useful substances. And where is the modern student without a good view? The school load is great, and to cope with it, it is necessary to feed the schoolboy correctly.

If the fat in the diet of a schoolboy is small, his body does not cope well with colds. The immune system weakens and malfunctions. This is especially dangerous in the autumn-winter season. In addition, the fat layer is needed for the production of sex hormones. The reproductive system of girls-schoolgirls can be properly formed only if there is sufficient fat tissue. At too thin models and sportswomen there are problems with conception and bearing of the child because of a scarcity of a fatty fabric.

Fat under the skin in the child's body also works and as a depot, necessary for warming the body. With a lack of fat, the child will be constantly cold and sick. Lack of fat also leads to disruption of the digestive tract of schoolchildren. And his health depends on his work. Therefore, parents should take care to ensure that the body of a child, keen on school lessons, received the fat is not less than the norm.

Sources of well-digested fats are the same sea fish, meat and dairy products, vegetable oils, cakes and cakes with cream (the latter should not be taken into consideration). Fats are animal and vegetable. Give preference to vegetable - they are better absorbed. Avoid margarine - it will not bring any benefit to the body, but calories will add to the maximum.

Whence to the schoolboy to take carbohydrates?

Children were buzzed with all ears, that they need to eat vegetables and fruits, because they contain useful carbohydrates. In practice, vegetables and fruits are not eaten by all children - there is no time to process them, it is expensive, then reluctant. It is much easier to use another source of carbohydrates - a bun or patty, and eat it faster at a break. But there is a nuance: a bun and pie add to the body of a schoolboy much less useful substances than vegetables and fruits.

If you really want to include carbohydrates in the diet of the child is not less than the norm, then know that in order to observe it, a schoolboy should eat at least 400 grams of vegetables or fruits a day. It is necessary to pay attention to the color of these products. The yellow, green and red colors of fruits and vegetables should be your reference points, because they contain a maximum of useful substances. And carbs, of course. And with them vitamins and minerals.

Vegetables and fruits must be served as a garnish for meat and fish - so the protein will be digested much better. Juicy spinach, cabbage in all its forms, zucchini in different colors and shapes. Radish, cucumbers, tomatoes, onions are excellent assistants to the child in his development. Take into account one important subtlety: do not prepare a salad of cucumbers and tomatoes together, because the useful substances of tomatoes (in particular, ascorbic acid) are suppressed by the juice of cucumbers, which is released during slicing and salting.

In addition, the golden rule of salads is to cook and immediately eat. You can not let the salad stand for a long time, even if it does not get sour in the fridge. Fresh cuts contain far more useful substances than salads that have already stood. Their useful substances can mutually destroy or reduce their properties upon contact with oxygen.

How much and what kind of nutrients a student needs a day?

Children's nutritionists have long determined that the ration of a schoolboy should consist of the correct ratio of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. The number of calories divided by the time of day. For example, breakfast should cover a quarter of a schoolboy's needs in calories. The pupil's lunch is 35% of the daily calorie rate. At dinner, up to 40% of calories needed for a child per day. And the child should have supper no later than 2 hours before going to bed.

The diet of a child who is intensively engaged in school is also very important. Before going to school, the student must have breakfast. The second breakfast - in the scheduled school hours - from 10 to 11 hours. This will give the child strength, restore his energy, which he spent on the most difficult lessons - the first. Then lunch at about 13-14.00. Do not interfere with the child and a snack - about 3 hours after lunch. And, finally, dinner - no later than 120 minutes before bedtime.

Ideally, if a child eats meals in divided doses - 5 times a day. Schoolchildren are older (starting from 7th-8th grade) can eat less often - 4 times a day. This will evenly distribute the dose of food, give the necessary energy to the teenager and not overload his digestive system.

It is important to know that breakfast, which the child eats at school, is preferably to be hot. For this, special time should be provided so that the student can eat everything without burning.

How correctly to feed the schoolboy? This question will help you also answer a doctor-nutritionist. In choosing a diet for a child, it is necessary to take into account his taste preferences and individual characteristics of the organism. Loving parents will certainly cope with this.

It is important to know!

A child in the first class can begin to get sick swiftly. This means that it adapts to unusual conditions: increased stress, a new children's collective, teachers, a new regime of the day. Therefore, the first-grader should be treated very carefully, but firmly - after all, he needs to help enter a new rhythm of life for him. Read more..

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