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Fat substitutes

In an effort to reduce the consumption of edible fats, some individuals resort to consuming foods with modified fat. In 1996, approximately 88% of the US population consumed low-fat or low-fat food and beverages. To meet these needs, food manufacturers have created a variety of ingredients called fat substitutes or their analogues.

Substitutes or analogues of fat

  • no chemical resemblance to fat
  • reproduce the functional and sensory properties of fat
  • energy value is less
  • replacement of all or part of the fat in the product
  • partial reproduction of some properties of fat
  • reduction in the amount of fat during frying.

Types of fat substitutes

Based on carbohydrates:

  • can not be used when frying
  • does not tolerate high temperatures

Microdispersed protein:

  • provides a taste of fat in the mouth
  • Can not be used at high temperatures because of protein coagulation

On the basis of fats:

  • Mono-idiglycerides:
    • change the fatty acid composition
    • reduce the total energy content
  • Fatty acids associated with sugar molecules:
    • not digested by intestinal enzymes
    • heat resistant, can be used for frying

These substitutes had to significantly reduce the total intake of fat. However, adding them to food does not replace edible fats, so experts believe that it is safe to reduce or replace the fat content in food by using appropriate methods of food processing.

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