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Exercises to strengthen the back muscles for children

For normal physical development of the child, special exercises are needed to strengthen the back. Consider the popular complexes and features of their implementation.

Physical activity is a pledge of normal growth and development of any organism. Physical culture carries not only therapeutic and preventive functions, but also educational ones. The child learns the world around him, acquires certain hygienic skills. Exercises to strengthen the back for children are necessary for the correct formation of the musculoskeletal system, strengthening the spine and back muscles, eliminating the asymmetry of posture and for the prevention of scoliosis.

The structure of the children's skeleton is specific, so normal posture is formed during the growth of the baby with the help of physical exercises. Perform exercises to strengthen the back can be from 6 months of age.

During exercise, such muscles are involved:

  • Trapezoid - starts from the back of the neck, is located in the upper back, responsible for the inclination of the head and the displacement of the blades.
  • The widest - located in the lower back, grabs the side of the chest. Responsible for lowering the raised arms and approaching the trunk to the limbs.
  • The muscle responsible for straightening the spine. It is located along the spinal column.

Since each child is different in his development, before the training it is worth to turn to a pediatrician or a children's physiotherapist, which will help determine the degree of readiness for physical exertion. To determine the development of musculature, it is necessary to conduct such a test: put the babe on the stomach, holding hands in the waist, and slightly lift. If the musculature of the back is developed normally, the child keeps the canopy, taking the pose of "swallow". If the kid does not keep his body on weight and does not strain the dorsal muscles, then special exercises should be conducted. This test should be repeated periodically to monitor the effectiveness of gymnastics.

To determine the level of development of muscles in older children, it is necessary to carry out such an exercise: let the child stand up straight and stretch out his arms. Observe how much the baby can stand in this position. If it costs more than 30 seconds, then the posture is correct and the muscular corset is developed normally. If less than 30 seconds, the posture is weakened and requires correction.

Regular exercises allow not only to strengthen the muscles of the back, but also have a beneficial effect on the whole body as a whole. Physical loads contribute to strengthening the cardiovascular system, improve blood circulation, breathing. In infants they develop motor skills, regulate the processes of nervous excitation and inhibition.

Exercises for a child 6-9 months.

  • First, prepare the child, take it in your arms, turn it with your back to yourself, with your hands in the area of the legs and pelvis. Together with the baby, lean forward slowly and return to the starting position. This will teach the child to keep the back of the canopy. Repeat the exercise 5-7 times.
  • Take the gym ball and put the child's back up on it. Hold the baby in the armpit and shake it on the ball back and forth. The child should bend his back in the form of a boat, lingering in this position for 3-5 seconds. Do this 5-8 times.
  • If the child does well with the previous exercise, then it can be complicated. Hold it by the hips and roll the ball away from yourself - to yourself. Linger in each position for a couple of seconds, so that the baby bends his back.

In addition to exercise, infants are shown a massage. As a rule, it is recommended to hold it when the child begins to learn how to sit. It helps to prepare the spine for future loads. Massage consists of stroking movements, rubbing and kneading.

  • Put the baby on your tummy and perform slow stroking movements with your hands along the spine up and down. Repeat 5-7 times.
  • Rubbing movements with the help of pads of fingers, walk up the spine and down. Do 3-5 repetitions.
  • With gentle kneading fingers, walk along the spine and along the sides along the intercostal vertebrae. Massage requires only the lateral muscles of the back from the bottom up. Do 3-5 repetitions and complete the exercises with strokes.

From about three years old the child begins to sit actively at the table, so parents need to seriously think about strengthening his spinal muscles and forming a correct posture. It is better to have health gymnastics after consulting a doctor. It is also recommended to gradually increase the load and systematically perform the exercises. Training should be conducted at all stages of physical and physiological development, preparing the young organism for new loads.

Indications

There are certain indications for exercises to strengthen the back in children. It is necessary to undergo examination and consult an orthopedist, a neurologist and a children's neurologist.

Exercises and massage appoint in such cases:

  • Developmental delay.
  • Scoliosis.
  • Rickets.
  • Hip dysplasia.
  • Inguinal or umbilical hernia.
  • Displacement of vertebral discs.
  • Clubfoot.
  • Flat feet.
  • Krivoshei.

Exercises include: stroking, rubbing, kneading, vibration. Particular attention is paid to the preparation for the procedure:

  1. The child should feel good and be in a normal mood, rested and cheerful.
  2. Before starting the exercises, ventilate the room. The optimum temperature regime is 18-22 ° C.
  3. It is necessary to conduct classes at the same time, 40-60 minutes after eating.
  4. During gymnastics you can include quiet music, which will relax the child and adjust to work.
  5. Complete the complex followed by water procedures.

The complex of exercises is selected taking into account the state of the child's health and the degree of development of the muscles. Classes should cause slight fatigue, but you should make sure that the baby does everything with pleasure and understands their significance. Training should start from 15-20 minutes 3 times a day and gradually increase to 40 minutes daily.

Contraindications

Each age period in children has its own characteristics, therefore it requires an individual approach when developing a set of exercises. Any physical exertion is not recommended in case of poor health, fever or acute course of any disease.

Contraindications concern violations of the heart rhythm and respiratory failure. Exercises are not performed for malignant diseases, acute form of rickets or tuberculosis, active form of hepatitis, inflammatory lesions of joints, bones and soft tissues. Training should be canceled until the child is fully recovered.

It should be borne in mind that preschoolers are very active and quickly tired. Children 6-7 years of age have a high rate of blood circulation, higher than in adults, so they are characterized by a violation of heart rhythms. For children over 10 years of training should be more intense. So, according to medical research, a schoolchild 8-12 years old needs daily in 3-4 hours of physical activity. For adolescents, short-term, but more complex, occupations are required. At the same time exercises for strengthening the back and beautiful posture are needed at any age, and especially when there are already certain defects.

Duration

From the age of the child, his emotional state and medical indications, depends on the duration of training to strengthen the back.

  • Babies up to 6 months are recommended to do exercises for 10-20 minutes a day.
  • For children from 6 to 12 months should be given for 30 minutes for gymnastics.
  • In infants from 1 to 3 years old, physical activity can last 30-40 minutes.

In this case, the first session is desirable to be conducted by a professional masseur who will show and help parents to establish contact with the child. As a rule, gymnastics are appointed for a long time. If the exercises were prescribed in conjunction with a massage, the course of such procedures is from 10 to 15.

Frequency

Therapeutic and strengthening gymnastics for the back should be carried out with a certain periodicity. The frequency of classes at the first time should be 3 times a week and gradually increase to daily training.

Also gradually, the load must increase. Begin training with a warm-up, after which there is a basic complex and easy stretching. During classes, it is necessary to avoid monotonous exercises and those that give painful sensations. Lesson is better to spend 40-60 minutes before or after eating.

Description of the exercise

Children of any age need regular training for the development of the muscular framework. The complex of exercises for strengthening the back to children is carried out according to the doctor's prescription or after consulting with an orthopedist, surgeon, pediatrician.

Treatment and prophylactic gymnastics is especially necessary for school-age children, as they have to sit at the desk for a long time. Being in the same position causes discomfort and can provoke a number of disorders in the formation of a correct posture.

Consider the most effective exercises for strengthening the back in children, which can be performed at home:

  • The body is straight, hands are up. Stretch up and slowly bend forward, touching the toes with your fingers and bending well in the lower back.
  • Lie on your back on the floor, knees bent. Bend the body without lifting the feet from the floor. Exercise on the press is useful for both the lower back and the abdominal muscles.
  • Hands on the waist, legs shoulder width apart, make the body slant left and right, forward and backward.
  • Legs shoulder width apart, hands on hips. Make a circular movement of the pelvis, first in one direction, then in the opposite direction.
  • Lie on your stomach and lift both your legs and arms outstretched at the same time. Hold for a couple of seconds in this position.
  • Stand on all fours, put your hands on the floor and gradually bend your back up and down like a cat.
  • Lie down on the floor and pull your knees up to your chin, rounding your back. Gently swap from the sitting position to the back and back.
  • Lie on your back, put your hands under your head or back. Raise your legs and perform movements like when riding a bicycle, that is, twist the pedals in the air.
  • Lying on your back, on a flat surface, lift your legs and keep them upright, making crossing motions.
  • Lie on your back, your legs are bent at the knees, the feet of the canvas are pressed to the floor, hands along the trunk. Pull the pelvis off the floor and bend. Try to raise the pelvis as high as possible, lingering in this position for 3-5 seconds.
  • The child kneels on the floor, leaning his hands on the floor. Take him by the ankles of his feet, so that he would walk with his hands on the floor. Do three sets of 10-15 steps.
  • Lie down on your stomach, bend over in the back, taking hold of your ankles with your hands, and stretch as high as you can.
  • Lying on your stomach, make flies with your arms and legs in the air, simulating the movements when swimming.
  • Alternately from the standing position, tighten the left and right knee to the chest, lingering for 3-5 seconds in this position.
  • Legs on the width of the shoulders, bend well in the back, hands in the lock. Lean to the left leg, touching the toes, to the right and the middle.

All exercises should be performed in 2-3 sets of 3-5 repetitions. Every day it is recommended to do a set of 3-4 above-described exercises, gradually increasing their number and making training more diverse. Doing gymnastics should be done with the child so that he can see the correct exercise and feel your support.

The changes occurring in the body

Regular exercise for strengthening the back for children can restore the normal state of the muscular system. Changes occurring in the body during therapeutic and prophylactic gymnastics, favorably affect the growth and development of all systems. The lack of training can lead to a disruption in the functional activity and uneven development of the muscular corset.

Correctly selected exercises allow you to correct the most common pathologies of muscle tone in children:

  • Hypertonus - increased tone is manifested by strong tension and clamping. Even in a dream the child can not completely relax: the legs are bent at the knees and pulled to the stomach, arms crossed on the chest. At the same time, because of the strong tone of the occipital muscles, the baby holds his head well.
  • Hypotonus - with reduced tone the child is sluggish and rarely moves the limbs, can not hold his head long. Sometimes the arms and legs are strongly bent in the knee and elbow joints. The kid looks limp.
  • Asymmetry of the muscle tone - the muscles of one half of the body are more developed than the other. The pelvis and head are turned in the direction of the strained muscles, and the trunk in the other.
  • Dystonia - an uneven tone is a combination of hyper- and hypotension. That is, some muscles are too strained, while others are relaxed.

Training beneficially affects not only the physical, but also the emotional state of children.

Complications

Painful sensations in the back and tension of the muscles of the spine, can indicate various pathological processes of the body. Complications in the form of pain and discomfort very often act as a sign of improper development of the muscular system. Lack of special exercises and increased stresses lead to serious violations not only of the musculature, but also of the skeleton.

Improper exercise for muscle development is also dangerous. First of all, various injuries. Complications often cause pain in the lower back. Because of overexertion, stretching occurs. Discomfort extends to the shoulder and neck area. In addition to increased sensitivity of the muscles, the child receives stress. To prevent this problem, before the exercise therapy should consult a doctor and learn the correct technique for performing the prescribed exercises.

Very often, parents encounter a child's incorrect bearing. This disorder belongs to the risk group for the development of orthopedic pathology of the spine and feet. A child with such a problem is more susceptible to diseases of the respiratory system, digestion, astheno-neurotic states. Improper posture leads to a decrease in the vital capacity of the lungs and makes it difficult for the cardiovascular system. Because of this, there are frequent headaches, rapid overwork.

To correct postural defects and strengthen the back in children, it is necessary to adhere to such recommendations:

  • Day regimen and hygiene conditions.
  • The correct diet, which includes meat, vegetable and cereal dishes. Particularly useful products include magnesium, iron, vitamin B and C, glucose, lecithin.
  • Therapeutic and physical complex for strengthening of the back, prevention of scoliosis and other pathologies.
  • The right choice of shoes, which will prevent functional shortening of the limb and flat feet.
  • Sleep on a hard mattress in the supine position or on the back.
  • Control of uniform and regular loading on the spine. This is especially true for children who wear a backpack, for a long time are in a sitting position.
  • Regular physical activity: walking in the fresh air, swimming, various physical exercises.

Exercises to strengthen the back for children should be done at any age, beginning with the first months of the baby's life. This allows you to prevent various disorders in the development of the muscular and bone system. Strengthens the spine and the body as a whole. In addition, regular physical activities give a charge of vivacity and improve the emotional state.

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Medical expert editor

Portnov Alexey Alexandrovich

Education: Kiev National Medical University. A.A. Bogomolets, Specialty - "General Medicine"

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