Bike device

, medical expert
Last reviewed: 20.11.2021

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The construction of a bike only for beginners seems complicated, everyone who has mastered a bike already knows what a rudder is for a bicycle, how the bicycle is assembled and how difficult the bike is to set up. A bicycle, even the most "beloved", true and comfortable, sooner or later has to be changed, either because of the deterioration, or for quite understandable reason - the desire to acquire a newer, modern model. If you decide to buy a new bicycle, the choice of models is very large, but here the method of acquisition involves only two ways - buy an already assembled bicycle, or find out what the assembly of a bicycle is and try to collect it with your own hands from the purchased parts. Usually biker fans buy a ready model - it's a little more economical in cost, and there's no need to collect it, in addition, setting up a bicycle is not as simple as it seems at first glance.

However, there are reasons why a person still chooses a variant of self-assembly, the following factors induce him to such actions:

  • The choice in favor of a particular model is made, but specialized stores can not provide this model in the assembly.
  • The desire to have an unusual, exclusive bike, which will be personal pride and the subject of envious looks.
  • Saving money when buying parts gradually, part by piece.
  • Just a desire to test your abilities and abilities in the sense of assembling a bicycle.

The bicycle device as standard includes the following parts and parts:

  1. Rama is one of the most significant parts of a bicycle, which consists of:
    • Upper tube
    • Bottom Pipe
    • Seat tube
    • Rear lower feathers
    • Rear upper feathers
    • Steering Pipe
  2. Brake handles
  3. Grips
  4. Mnoutki
  5. Take-away
  6. Steering wheel for bicycles
  7. Steering column for a bicycle
  8. Forks for bicycles
  9. Rim
  10. Tires
  11. Knitting needles
  12. Sleeve
  13. Brakes for bicycles
  14. Saddle
  15. Seatpost
  16. Cassette
  17. Rear shock absorber
  18. Rock ring
  19. Connecting rods
  20. Chain
  21. Pedals
  22. Rear and front derailleur

Frame for bicycle

The device of a bicycle is its basis, that is a frame. It is important not only the geometric design of the frame, but also the material from which it is made. The frame is the support that helps to withstand the overcoming of obstacles on rough terrain, from the geometric parameters of the frame, its convenience depends on the size of the cyclist's landing. The more experienced a cyclist, the more he prefers a low landing, leaning mostly on his hands. Rama is, perhaps, the first, with which the assembly of the bicycle begins, since almost all parts of the bike are attached to it:

  • forks for a bicycle,
  • steering wheel for bicycle,
  • wheels,
  • seat,
  • chassis,
  • brakes for bicycles,
  • speed switches,
  • rooster - bracket, fastening switch.

If necessary, the trunk and other spare parts are attached to the frame, creating maximum comfort for the owner of the bike.

Steering wheel for bicycles

As the great Einstein said, "Life is driving a bicycle, keep balance - move," so without steering, no matter how fast you move, it is impossible to keep the balance proposed by the scientist. The wheel for a bicycle is the essence of controlling it, it is indisputable and does not require additional argumentation. The steering wheel is a tube made of carbon or a special metal, which is attached to the bike by means of removal. In addition, that the steering wheel is responsible for controlling the bike, it still takes over, as well as the frame, the weight of the bicyclist. The handle of the brake control, the switch of speeds, the flu, the headlights, the cataphyte, the horns, the bell, and such a fashionable and very convenient accessory, like a bike computer, are attached to the handlebar.

Kinds of a wheel for a bicycle

  • Mountain bikes are usually equipped with a direct steering wheel, other models, such as, for example, a hybrid have a vertical, raised steering wheel. These types of rudder are not designed for long trips, since they assume limited variants of the position of the hands.
  • For tourists more suitable wheel, which is made in the form of a drop, it is called - the steering wheel, a drop. This type of steering assumes a slight slope, which helps to keep hands from slipping forward.
  • The wheel for a bicycle, called a butterfly wheel, is extremely popular with European cyclists. A similar wheel for a bicycle involves four positions of the hands, which helps reduce the load on them. The wheel is suitable for those who prefer long trips and trips.
  • Rudder-whiskers - another version of the rudder, designed for long distances, allows you to change the position of the hands and position the body vertically.
  • A rudder for a bicycle, called a rudder-horn. This is a variant of a rudder designed to control a bike that wins a high-speed race. The ideal type of steering wheel to overcome obstacles in off-road trips.

The wheel for a bicycle is equipped with the flu (handles) - rubber, slit, word such that create convenience and comfort in management. The take-off of the rudder is also important, since it regulates the comfort of the bicyclist's landing. For walks, a more vertical landing is selected, for high-speed races - aerodynamic options, that is, lower ones. In accordance with the specifics, a take-out is chosen which, in the latest modern bicycle models, is made adjustable.

Forks for bicycles

This is an important part, which includes the device of the bicycle. Forks for bicycles are a carrying control mechanism. With the fork, the front wheel is held, the wheel axle is connected to the steering wheel, and many functions are performed, among which you can specify the following:

  • Control the accuracy of the wheel path.
  • The accuracy of turning the wheel is adequate to the angle of the steering wheel.
  • Controlling the front brake load for the bicycle when braking.
  • Neutralization of vertical oscillatory movements of the front wheel when overcoming road obstacles and driving on uneven terrain.
  • Control of safe driving due to the strength of the structure.

The forks for bicycles can be hard and soft or shock absorbing. Rigid forks are a fixed design, which has its advantages, but the most popular bike suspension forks. In adaptive, shock-absorbing forks, the main "highlight" is an element that absorbs the load. It can be a spring with air, or air and oil, more and more often there are models in which all three cushioning components are present.

Shift system

The bicycle arrangement, as well as the bicycle setting, requires a high-quality gear shift system. The system includes the following parts:

  • Monoblocks, including speed shift knobs, brake handles. Manket (candybar) can be trigger or influenza. Trigger monoblock works on the basis of the trigger mechanism, influyift - based on the drum mechanism.
  • The front switch provides movement of the chain along the stars, the switch is connected by cables to the mantle. The assembly of the bicycle in this part is extremely simple, since the front switch is perhaps the most simple mechanism in the bicycle device.
  • The rear switch is designed to transfer the chain to different stars of the bicycle cassette. It is also attached to the monoblock by the cables, but it is more difficult to assemble this part of the design than the front switch. In addition, the rear switch is constantly in contact with dirt, water, so it is considered to be a fairly fragile mechanism.
  • Cables that depart from the cuff and provide the transfer of the hands of the rider to the braking system with the help of switches. The device of a bicycle assumes the presence of four cables, but there are such brakes for bicycles where the cables are replaced by hydraulic lines, and the transmitter of the cyclist's efforts is oil and the pressure of the piston in the manikins.

Brakes for bicycles

Speed is fine, but the bike should be manageable, that is, have brakes. The braking system assumes the choice of three types of brakes:

  • Braking with the help of the pedals in the opposite direction - the mechanism of the action of the brake drum.
  • Bicycle brakes arranged like a mite. They clamp the rim of the wheel.
  • Brakes for the bicycle, working by compressing the disc on the wheel hub, like a brake in a motorcycle.
  • Disc and brake brakes can be both mechanical (on cables), hydraulic, or combined.


The system is a special set of front stars, connecting rod, pedals and chain. The system includes, as a rule, three stars, for road bikes, two stars are enough. Often the system is protected from plastic, so that clothing is not clamped between the chain or the teeth. Pedals are attached to the connecting rods attached to the system. Pedals are selected depending on the type of bicycle and the main task - speed, overcoming obstacles or simply traveling. The pedals can be:

  • Standard pedals with a strap - tuklipsy.
  • Simple pedals without fasteners and straps.
  • Contact type of pedals, which assumes fastening on a special velobuvi.

The device of the bicycle includes a rather complex mechanism - a chain that wears out quickly, requires regular care - cleaning, lubrication.

The cassette is a set of asterisks designed for the rear of the bicycle. The more in the cassette of stars, the better the transmission and the less effort you need to apply when you conquer a vertical, steep slope.

Bicycle Wheels

The wheel arrangement includes such details:

  • The rim, on the strength of which depends the entire strength of the wheel, and also the speed. A mountain bike is usually equipped with a rim with a diameter of 26 to 29 inches, the road model has a rim of 27-28 inches.
  • A tire that creates stability when driving in different terrain, also the tire affects the speed properties of the bike. Non-protector tires are called "slicks", tires with side spikes are "half-spikes". "Shipovki" - this is completely protector tires.
  • Wheel bushings that provide a rotational property of the wheel on the axis. The sleeves also hold the spokes.
  • Spokes are a very fragile and vulnerable element of the bicycle design, since it is the spokes that take the main strokes when driving on a rough, uneven terrain. Wheels, as a rule, are knitted in a three-way manner, there is a cross in the sun. Mountain bikes have from 32 to 36 spokes in the wheel.
  • A nipple that holds air in the bicycle chamber.

Saddle for a bicycle

A saddle is a place that a priori should provide maximum comfort for the cyclist. Highway bicycles have rather long and narrow saddles, a mountain bike is equipped with a wide saddle, there are saddles spring loaded, which help to keep the vertical position of the hull. Previously, there was a clear differentiation of seats on the so-called gender, modern models of bicycles offer to equalize this inequality, they are usually equipped with universal types of saddles.

The verb or seat post, from which height the biker's landing also depends, also the verb regulates the distance of the biker's feet from the pedals to the ground surface. The pins can be rigid or shock-absorbing.

Seat clamp or eccentric, which is designed to clamp the verb in the frame.

Build a bicycle

If you decide that the bicycle device does not represent a special secret to you, assembly of the bike in this case should also work. Of course, it is better to assemble a bicycle under the guidance of an experienced cyclist. However, if you want to test your own strengths and apply knowledge, skills and abilities, try. In the end, perhaps in the process of assembling, you will be able to assemble a completely unique model, confirming the expression "it is possible to invent a bicycle indefinitely".

First of all, you will need the following set of tools, without which the assembly of a bicycle, as well as setting a bicycle, is impossible:

  • Hexagon keys are better in typing.
  • A puller for the carriage and cassette.
  • Puller for the system.
  • Squeeze for a bicycle chain.
  • Metric wrenches are better in typing.
  • Pliers and hammer.
  • Spanner key.
  • Nippers.
  • Grease.

The assembly of the bicycle begins with the frame and fork, which you have already picked up in accordance with the chosen model and the task set - cross-country trips, simple walks or high-speed races. It is also important, before assembling, to verify the adequacy and consistency of the mantlet, the number of stars, the system of the front stars and the chain. The largest star in the transmission must be in accordance with the front switch, the rear switch - to the maximum size of the star, cassette and mans. It is also important to pre-assemble the wheels, for their assembly you will need a machine and an umbrella to control the accuracy of the rim in the fork and to control its runout. Before the assembly of the bicycle begins, you can put on a rim special flipper (tape) to neutralize the risk of puncturing the camera.

Build a bicycle - what can you do yourself, and what should I entrust to the workshop specialist?

The professional can, and even necessary, instruct the installation of the steering column. At home, it is unlikely to be able to press the cups into the frame in a qualitative way, and a special tool that makes it possible to buy this is inappropriate. Also, only in the workshop it is possible to tie the steering glass of the frame, that is, to bring the glass perpendicular to its axis. For such an operation, a milling machine is required, which also does not become available for home assembly. If there is a desire to take risks, you can try all these procedures yourself using a conventional plaque and a banal hammer. However, such experiments are time consuming, besides, nervous stresses are guaranteed to you.

At home, it is possible to install a thrust washer of the steering column on the fork, which is manually put on the pipe. Saddle the ring easily with a hammer and a tube of adequate diameter. Next, we install the anchor and the carriage unit, it is better if it is capsular, since this type of carriage does not require additional adjustment. Note that the bike assembly and bicycle assembly assume that the carriage on the right side of the frame must be turned counterclockwise, the left side of the frame is vice versa. For the screwing process to be more convenient, the thread must be pre-lubricated.

Assembly of the bicycle is the steering knot. If the bicycle forks do not have threads, the assembly is initially assembled: you need to install more rings, try to ride, check the sensations, adjust the stem length after approbation (cut off excess). If the column and the plug has a thread, you will have to take risks, trying them on the spot and sawing off the excess part of the fork rod. Next, a take-out is installed, with pre-tensioned bearings.

An important stage is the installation of a bicycle on the wheels (well, if it takes place on a special rack), fastening with eccentrics (twisting of the axis). The next step - the installation of the steering wheel, equipping it with brake handles and pullers. We put on flu and horns. Grips are well fixed, if you pre-pour a little alcohol in them, which quickly evaporates and creates the necessary fit to the handlebar.

The next stage is the installation of the system, before which the axis is lubricated. When installing the system, it is necessary to monitor the tight tightening of the bolts. In the future, after each hundred-kilometer run, fastenings should be regularly checked and tightened.

We install (fasten) the switches - rear and front. To install the chain, you must pre-press the pin with a squeeze. We fix the brakes for the bicycle, lay the brake cables and the shifting cables, cutting them off with a margin, crimping the ends.

We set the pedals. Bicycle assembly assumes that the right pedal has a right-hand thread, the left pedal is left-handed, respectively, so that the pedals can be unscrewed during operation. We collect the seat post and then the saddle.

All other details - wings, lanterns, bags and other accessories are installed quite easily and without additional recommendations.

Before starting to operate the assembled model, it is necessary to adjust it, that is, you need to adjust the bicycle. Setting up the bike is as follows:

  • Alignment of the rudder with respect to the plane of the front bicycle wheel (perpendicular).
  • Tightening the steering column.
  • Tension of bearings after check by an inclination - a bicycle tilt sideways so that the wheel without jamming could bend downwards (a leading edge).
  • Check of smoothness of rotation of a wheel.
  • Adjustment of the removal at a convenient height. Release the bolts that secure the removal of the fork tube, tighten the upper bolt, then tighten the removal bolts.
  • Install the steering wheel in the desired position.
  • Adjusting the position of the brake pens and monoblock (mannequins).
  • Adjustment of vector brakes. Before you tighten the pads, you can put a small coin under the back. The gap in the free state should be no more than 2 millimeters.
  • Switching adjustment. The extreme position of the switches is set by means of screws in such a way as to achieve a clear switching. If everything is done correctly, the chain will not touch and cling to the frame.

The installation of a bicycle, the assembly of a bicycle and its adjustment only seem to be a matter of heavy and unbearable. In fact, if you want and a sufficient level of motivation, everything is surmountable, as well as obstacles that are able to conquer the bicycle collected with your own hands.

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