Dietary table number 7 or salt-free diet has the following indications:
- Chronic nephritis.
- Renal failure.
- Heart failure with swelling.
- Ascites (accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity).
- Pancreas dysfunction.
- Chronic inflammation of the intestinal mucosa.
- Chronic / acute gastritis with high acidity.
- Peptic ulcer and duodenal ulcer.
- Allergic inflammation of the nasal mucosa and eyes.
- Articular rheumatism.
- Dyshidrosis with excessive sweating of the arms and legs.
The diet for the above indications should be prescribed by the attending physician and monitored using laboratory and instrumental studies. Salt-free nutrition is carried out in a strictly allotted period of time. This creates favorable conditions for the normal functioning of the kidneys and other internal organs. The diet has antiallergic effect and improves urination.
Salt-free diet for hypertension
Hypertension is a disease of the cardiovascular system with a persistent increase in blood pressure. Arterial hypertension can occur due to the action of hereditary factors, stress, bad habits, obesity, various diseases of the body, taking medications and with excessive salt intake.
A diet for hypertension is an essential part of treatment. Patients are prescribed anti-cholesterol and salt-free nutrition, the main purpose of which is to reduce blood pressure. Without dietary control, the disease will progress, causing serious complications of the cardiovascular and nervous system, kidneys.
Salt-free nutrition in hypertension:
- Corrects exchange disorders.
- Improves the work of the heart muscle.
- Normalizes blood clotting.
- Increases the elasticity of blood vessels.
- Increases the synthesis of hormones neuroregulators: serotonin, dopamine.
NaCl retains fluid in the body, which is manifested by swelling of the tissues surrounding the capillaries. The effect of increased pressure on the arteries increases the blood flow from the heart cavities. The diet is based on limiting sodium and cholesterol intake. In drawing up the diet should follow these rules:
- Minimize daily salt intake. The optimal dose of 3-4 g per day. To improve the taste of food, it is recommended to use various spices: dill, parsley, garlic, lemon juice, basil, thyme and more.
- Products banned with animal fats are banned. Bad cholesterol provokes high blood pressure. To restore the capillary patency, any food that violates lipid metabolism should be discarded. The list of contraindications includes: egg yolks, fatty meats, whole milk and cream, offal, solid vegetable oils.
- To exclude the use of alcohol, nicotine, drinks with caffeine. Stimulants increase the pulse and cause over-stimulation of the upper brain. Increased load on the cardiovascular system provokes a rise in blood pressure.
- When eating carbohydrates, give preference to the complex. Saccharides are the main source of energy in the body. Simple carbohydrates (sweets, confectionery, jam) provoke a sharp increase in blood glucose levels and release of large doses of insulin. Excess glucose is transformed into adipose tissue, which is fraught with metabolic syndrome and obesity. While complex saccharides are slowly absorbed, they do not cause metabolic disturbances and sharp jumps in blood sugar.
- In the diet of hypertonic should be foods rich in potassium and magnesium. These trace elements accelerate the removal of excess fluid from the tissues, have a relaxing effect on the arteries, prevent the accumulation of atherosclerotic plaques on the walls of the capillaries and reduce spasms of smooth muscles.
Pressure reducing products:
- Unsalted seafood: fish, seaweed, scallops, oysters and others.
- Low-fat dairy products: cottage cheese, cheese, kefir, yogurt, whey.
- Vegetables: pumpkin, zucchini, eggplant, cabbage, beet, avocado, leafy greens.
- Fruits, berries, dried fruits: grapefruit, prunes, dried apricots, lemon, wild rose, cranberry, black currant, grapes, apples, citrus.
- Whole grain products: rye bread, buckwheat, brown rice, oats, pasta made from coarse wheat varieties.
- Unrefined vegetable oils.
When cooking, use sparing methods: roasting, stewing, steaming, boiling. Also recommended fractional diet, that is, 5-6 times a day. Particular attention should be paid to the ratio of the main components of food: 15% proteins, 30% fats, 60% complex carbohydrates. The daily rate of water is calculated 35-50 ml / kg of body weight, that is, you need to drink at least 1.5-2 liters of water per day.
Overweight hypertensives are advised to prefer vegetarian food. In moderate and severe hypertension, in addition to the diet, it is very important to comply with all medical prescriptions, including medication.
Salt-free diet for kidney diseases
In case of kidney disease, all patients are prescribed diet table No. 7. Medical food provides restriction of the use of salt and other extractive substances irritating kidneys. Due to this, an anti-inflammatory effect occurs and the elimination of oxidized metabolic products is improved.
The main indications for a salt-free diet for renal pathologies are:
- Acute diffuse glomerulonephritis in the recovery period.
- Chronic nephritis in remission.
- Nephritis with severe renal insufficiency.
- Tuberculosis of the kidneys.
- Nephrotic syndrome.
- Terminal renal failure in patients with hemodialysis.
Diet number 7 creates favorable conditions for the work of the kidneys with their inflammatory lesions. Gentle nutrition improves metabolic processes in the tissues of the kidneys and other organs, has anti-allergic effect, stimulates urination.
Types of diet number 7:
- 7a - chronic nephritis with severe renal insufficiency. Maximum sparing salt-free and low protein nutrition. To improve the taste of food it is recommended to use fresh greens, lemon. As the patient recovers, he is transferred to diet 7b. During treatment, salt, meat and fish dishes, legumes, as well as other substances and drinks that irritate the kidneys are completely excluded.
- 7b - is prescribed for chronic renal diseases with severe azotemia. It is indicated for patients on the 15-20 day of treatment. The diet removes nitrogenous slags from the body and the oxidized products of protein metabolism, prevents the accumulation of harmful substances in the blood, reduces hypertension, increases urine output, and has an anti-inflammatory effect.
- 7c - chronic kidney disease with nephrotic syndrome: glomerulonephritis, amyloidosis, kidney tuberculosis, nephropathy of pregnant women. Medical nutrition is aimed at reducing hypercholesterolemia, edema, proteinuria, fills the protein level. This diet provides an increased content of proteins and lipotropic factors with a sharp restriction of NaCl, simple carbohydrates and extractive substances.
- 7g - terminal renal failure in patients with permanent hemodialysis. The recommended chemical composition of the diet: proteins 60 g, fat 110 g, carbohydrates 450 g. Consumption of salt - no more than 2 grams per day, water - up to 1 l per day. In the diet should limit foods rich in potassium and vegetable protein.
- 7p - terminal renal failure, hyperuricemia. Protein should be 75% of plant origin. Nutrition fractional, all products are served in boiled or baked form.
- Bread and flour products (bran, without yeast and salt).
- Soups with cereals, vegetables, pasta.
- Low-fat meat, poultry, fish (limited in the first two weeks of treatment).
- Eggs (not more than 2 pieces per day), milk and dairy products.
- Vegetables and greens, fruits and berries.
- Cereals and pasta.
- Herbal teas, broth hips and black currants, fruit and berry juices.
- White and black bread, sweet pastries.
- Marinated, canned and any other salted products.
- Meat and fish broths.
- Fatty meats, fish, birds.
- Canned food, sauces, snack pate.
- Legumes, onions, mushrooms, garlic, sorrel.
- Alcoholic and carbonated drinks.
During treatment, restriction of salt intake and a slight decrease in protein are shown, fats and carbohydrates remain unchanged. Also recommended fractional diet and gentle culinary processing (fried food is contraindicated). The chemical composition and energy value of the diet: proteins 70g, fats 80-90g, carbohydrates 300g, calorie 2000-2400 kcal.
Salt-free diet of edema
Edema is an excessive accumulation of fluid in the organs and tissues of the body. Approximately 2/3 of the fluid is in the cells, and 1/3 in the intercellular space. Puffiness appears when fluid passes from the cells into the extracellular space. A painful condition occurs when kidney disease, pathologies of the cardiovascular system, due to overeating salty foods and other reasons. In any case, edema signals a failure in the body and requires treatment.
Salt-free diet - is one of the effective methods to combat edema. The essence of nutrition is to reject products that retain water in the body, primarily salt. Excess sodium chloride retains water, disrupts metabolic processes and increases blood pressure.
- The diet should be carried out in consultation with your doctor, as a limited diet can cause severe weakness. This is a particular risk for people with kidney and liver failure.
- To improve the taste of food, salt substitutes, natural herbs and other spices are used.
- With strong edema, fasting days are recommended in conjunction with medical treatment.
- During the diet it is better to refuse diuretic drugs, since their use can lead to dehydration and impaired water-salt balance.
In the treatment of edema, it is very important to choose natural products that are well absorbed, saturated with useful micro and macro elements.
- Low-fat varieties of meat, fish, poultry.
- Dairy and dairy products: cheese, cottage cheese, kefir, yogurt, sour cream.
- Cereals and pasta from durum wheat.
- Cereal bread (without yeast).
- Vegetables and fruits rich in potassium.
- Fresh juices and decoctions with diuretic action.
- Fatty, spicy, fried.
- Canned, salted and pickled products.
- Canned fish and pates.
- Pastry from wheat flour.
- Snacks and products with artificial additives.
You should also limit daily consumption of NaCl to 1 g and liquid to 1.5 liters. In addition to the diet, it is necessary to minimize stress and nervous experiences, to keep fit, to get enough sleep.
Salt-free nutrition from edema requires the preparation of the body to conduct a diet and exit it. You can not completely abandon the salt and quickly return to the usual diet. Before treatment, it is recommended to gradually reduce the amount of salt, and at the end of the diet, slowly introduce it into the menu .
If you do not adhere to these rules, then an increased amount of sodium chloride will become a strong stress for the body. First of all, it will have a negative impact on the urinary system and heart function. Edema reappears, blood clots may form and blood pressure may rise.
Salt-free diet for urolithiasis
Urolithiasis (ICD) is a pathological condition in which solid masses are formed in the bladder and renal pelvis. Most often, this anomaly occurs against the background of metabolic disorders in the body. Mandatory component of treatment is diet therapy.
The diet is based on limiting the consumption of foods that contribute to the formation of sediment and stones. If the disease proceeds against the background of pathologies of the cardiovascular system, then fluid restriction is indicated. Before drawing up the diet, the patient is prescribed tests to determine the composition of the calculus: blood and urine for salt transport, urinalysis, study of the structure and mineral composition of stones.
Urolithiasis has several types. Depending on the nature of the solid formations and their chemical composition, therapeutic nutrition is compiled. Consider the main types of stones and salt-free nutrition for their treatment:
- Oxalates (caused by oxalate salts).
During treatment, you should limit the use of salt and foods that provoke the formation of calcium oxalate crystals:
- Spinach, Sorrel, Rhubarb and other products with vitamin C.
- Chocolate, cocoa.
- Potatoes, tomatoes.
- Black currant.
- Onions, carrots, peppers.
- Fatty meats, poultry, fish and broths from them.
- Pastry baking.
- Canned and smoked meats.
- Strong tea, kvass, cocoa.
At the heart of the diet should be fruit that displays sorrel acid: grapes, pears, plums, apples. Temporary unloading on fruit allows you to restore normal health by alkalizing urine and reducing the amount of oxalate.
The basis of the diet should be such products:
- Yesterday's white and rye bread.
- Fermented milk and dairy products (in moderation).
- Eggs without yolks.
- Vegetable and cereal soups.
- Kashi and pasta.
- Fruit and berry juices.
- Broths of coltsfoot, birch leaves, violet roots.
Calorie intake should not exceed 3500 kcal. The amount of fluid up to 2 liters per day. Cold and hot meals are contraindicated.
- Urats (salt precipitate in an acidic environment).
The diet is aimed at restoring the exchange of purines, shifting the urine reaction to the alkaline side and reducing the intensity of the synthesis of uric acid salts. Salt, proteins and fats should be ingested in moderation. The amount of liquid 1.5-2 liters per day, caloric 3000 kcal.
- Fatty varieties, fish, meat, poultry.
- Meat, mushroom and fish broths.
- Bean cultures.
- Spinach and sorrel.
- Alcoholic beverages, coffee, cocoa.
- Salt, canned, pickled products.
Patients shown 3-5 meals a day. Culinary processing of food and food temperature is not regulated. Additional consumption of vitamin C and B1 is also recommended.
- Milk products.
- Lean meat and fish.
- Vegetable and cereal soups.
- White and black bread.
- Pasta, porridge.
- Sweet fruits.
- Vegetables, leaf lettuce.
- Fruit and berry juices.
When urata useful all types of dairy products, vegetables and fruits, cereals. Diet should be similar to vegetarian.
- Phosphates (formed in the alkaline environment of the body).
Concretions are formed due to a violation of the proportions of calcium and phosphorus in urine. Since urine is alkaline, phosphates do not dissolve with it. Salt-free diet is aimed at reducing foods high in calcium and increasing the acidic environment of urine. Under the ban gets vegetable, dairy and flour food.
- Sour berries and vegetables.
- Milk and dairy products.
- Alcoholic and carbonated drinks, coffee.
- Hot spices, salt.
The composition of the medical menu should include:
- Brussels sprouts.
- Red currants and lingonberries.
- Beef liver.
- Egg yolks.
- Dairy products.
A salt-free diet for urolithiasis stops the formation of new stones. Properly formulated nutrition is balanced and as safe as possible for the kidneys, since all irritants are excluded.