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Dietary correction of obesity and overweight

, medical expert
Last reviewed: 11.04.2020
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Basic principles of dieting for people with overweight

Choosing recommendations for nutrition of a person with excessive body weight, first of all, one should remember about such an important indicator as the reduction of the caloric content of a daily diet.

For patients with excessive body weight and obesity, grades I-II are calculated based on the norm of 30-35 kcal per 1 kg of ideal body weight, with more pronounced obesity - 17-30 kcal per 1 kg of ideal body weight.

For fast weight loss, very low calorie diets are used for 3-12 weeks under outpatient supervision:

  • energy value of 600-1000 kcal / day;
  • relatively high protein content - 1.5 g / (kg-day);
  • sufficient amount of vitamins, minerals and fatty acids;
  • completely or partially replace the usual food for special products (cocktails, soups, briquettes).

The weight loss is on the average 1.2-2.0 kg / week in women, 2-2.5 kg / week in men.

Such diets are shown with a BMI greater than 30 kg / m 2, ineffectiveness of other conservative treatments, with high motivation for rapid weight loss.

That is why such a variant of active stimulation of lipolysis is acceptable in the center of aesthetic medicine.

trusted-source[1], [2], [3]

Limiting the amount of saturated fats and simple carbohydrates

Undoubtedly, there is a relationship between the rate of increase in body weight and the composition of food consumed. A diet high in fat stimulates fat storage, but does not accelerate their cleavage. The deposition of triglycerides in adipose tissue practically does not require expenditure of energy, which is why the lion's share of food fats is deposited in adipocytes. The share of energy of fats in food should not exceed 25%, cholesterol is limited to 100 mg / day. Carbohydrates, especially rapidly digested, stimulate the release of insulin, which reduces the yield of free fatty acids from adipocytes by inactivating lipase, and enhance the capture of triacylglycerol by fat cells by activating the lipoprotein lipase. Consequently, their quantity must be properly regulated.

Adequate balance of nutrients, vitamins, trace elements

With any type of obesity in the body, there is almost always a deficit of vitamins, microelements and amino acids. In this situation, the physiological response of the body is the activation of the hunger center, which leads to an excessive calorie of the diet.

Sufficient amount of complex carbohydrates (vegetable fiber). False carbohydrates are rich in vitamins, microelements; have a low glycemic index, i.e., are not insulinic; contained in this category of products, vegetative fiber contributes to the release of energy, the growth of normal intestinal microflora, the normalization of colon motility, detoxification.

trusted-source[4], [5], [6], [7]

Correctly calculated protein component

An increased amount of food proteins is necessary to prevent the endogenous decomposition of the body's protein (especially muscle tissue) in conditions of low energy value of the diet and maintenance of lipolytic enzymes. The amount of protein in the diet of a person who reduces body weight should be 1.5 g per 1 kg of ideal body weight. Contraindicated decrease in proteins below 60 grams per day in diets with an energy value of 1200 kcal or less, since a prolonged deficiency of food proteins, in addition to loss of muscle tissue, leads to the development of fatty liver. In the diet of obese patients, restriction of table salt is provided. It is advisable to recommend patients not to use table salt during cooking, and in a ready dish it can be added in a moderate amount - 2.5-5 g during the day.

The volume of free fluid is limited only by the indication (pathology of the cardiovascular system and kidneys). The average volume of free liquid per day should be 1.5-2.0 liters. Against the background of the hyponatrial diet, one should not be afraid of the appearance of edema. Fluid within a day is taken in small fractions, in small portions, especially important is this recommendation for lymphatic drainage procedures. It is desirable to avoid sweet clarified fruit juices because of the significant content of synthetic and natural sugars in them. It should be borne in mind that the use of liquid can reduce the feeling of hunger, as the centers of thirst and appetite are in the paired nuclei of the hypothalamus,

trusted-source[8], [9], [10], [11], [12]

Diet

It is advisable to take four times a day, without transferring the bulk of the energy intensity of the diet to the evening hours. In the intervals between meals, snacks are not indicated, the use of sugar-free liquid is allowed. Such a regime promotes normalization of insulinogenesis and enzymatic activity of the opganes of the digestive system.

trusted-source[13], [14], [15], [16], [17], [18], [19], [20]

The basic principles of a diet for adolescents:

  • adequate energy expenditure of calorie daily intake
  • food intake 4-5 times a day;
  • vitamin and mineral balance;
  • the proper amount of high-grade protein;
  • absence of "traumatic" effects on the hormonal balance.

Adolescents (persons aged 14 to 18 years) are categorically contraindicated in adherence to rigid low-calorie diets, since this significantly disrupts the endocrine systems. During the period of active growth, development and development of hormonal balance of the body is under way - at this time sharp changes in caloric content and qualitative composition of the diet are unacceptable. A growing organism needs an adequate composition of vitamins, macronutrients, enough high-grade protein to build a muscle framework. The number of calories from food should correspond to the level of mental and physical activity. Eating a teenager should be frequent, but moderate in volume.

The basic principles of a diet for people over 60:

  • decrease in the energy value of the diet to 1500-1800 kcal / day;
  • food intake 4-5 times a day;
  • sparing effects on the enzymatic system of digestion;
  • prevention of diabetes mellitus, violations of the lipid spectrum of the blood.

A problem that makes it difficult to make a diet for people over 60 is a significant number of somatic diseases, such as hypertension, diabetes mellitus (usually type II), hypercholesterolemia, osteochondrosis, arthrosis. In this situation, severe low-calorie diets are also contraindicated. The caloric content of the diet should be reduced to the physiological norm. Given the reduced activity of digestive enzymes, the diet of an elderly person should not contain red-meat proteins that are difficult to digest at this age. The emphasis should be on non-fat fish, sour-milk products, vegetable proteins. The daily protein norm in persons of this category should be 0.9-1 g per 1 kg of ideal body weight. It should be noted that a lack of a protein quota diet can lead to a decrease in regenerative processes - worse liver function, pancreas, activated premature aging. For maximum digestion of food, the nutrition of patients in this category should also be frequent, but moderate in volume. It is necessary to significantly reduce the number of animal fats, sugars, salt in the diet for the purpose of prevention and treatment of the above diseases.

Diets and men

The course of obesity as a disease has certain differences in men and women, which is largely due to the nature of the metabolism and the distribution of fat tissue in persons of different sexes. Before puberty, boys and girls do not have significant differences in the amount and nature of adipose tissue deposition. Beginning with the puberty period, the differences become obvious. In the female body, estrogens and progesterone initiate the development of adipose tissue in the peripheral "depot" - the area of the chest and lower body. A gluteal-femoral type of obesity is being formed. In the male body, the deposition of adipose tissue is central - the greatest accumulation occurs in the abdomen, around the internal organs, in the omentum. Abdominal-visceral type of obesity is formed. A significant difference in android obesity is the structure of the receptor apparatus of the fat cell. In this type of obesity, beta-adrenergic receptors predominate on the adipocyte membrane, which have a high sensitivity to the processes and factors that stimulate lipolysis. Hence, reducing body weight and reducing the volume in men is achieved faster and more stable than in women. In addition, android type of obesity refers to hypertrophic, that is, the number of adipocytes is not increased. With a competent selection of a technique that reduces the volume of a fat cell, the results are preserved for a long time.

However, there are certain difficulties. They are connected with work on such a problem zone as the abdomen. The severity of subcutaneous fat, the thickness of adipose tissue in this zone, the depth of its bedding, the presence of visceral fat require the appointment of a diet, hardware methods and physical activity. The role of exercise can hardly be underestimated if the adipose tissue is included in the structure of hypotonic mice.

The cause of obesity in men in the vast majority of cases is malnutrition. Work, lifestyle lead to excessive consumption of fatty foods, alcoholic beverages. Especially character. But the violation of the principles of rational nutrition in the evening hours, evening hypodynamia There is an alimentary-constructive type of obesity, "beer belly." Despite the fact that diet therapy in this situation is really effective, it is extremely difficult to force the client to make a decision and follow a diet. It's a pity! After all, expressed obesity in men, in addition to obscheomaticheskih diseases leads to a decrease in the secretion of sex hormones and, as a consequence, to a decrease in libido, erectile dysfunction, secondary infertility. The task of a specialist is not only the proper appointment and conduct of procedures aimed at reducing body weight, but also motivating the patient to change the lifestyle and style of nutrition.

trusted-source[21], [22], [23], [24], [25], [26], [27], [28], [29], [30]

"Trendy" diets

Currently, there are more than 30,000 diets in the world. The cosmetologist who is engaged in correction of a figure, should be armed with knowledge about the most popular diets. After all, it is he who is to warn the patient of his passion for diet, which can lead to the emergence of serious somatic pathology.

Unloading days

For patients who do not have the opportunity to undergo a long-term course of dietary correction, it is advisable to prescribe a "zigzag-nutrition" technique. Once or twice a week, in order to enhance the activity of metabolic processes and the work of the endocrine system, it is necessary to appoint a discharge day. Most importantly, this day coincides with the implementation of procedures of a lipolytic orientation. The average calorie content of a daily diet can fluctuate within 450-1000 kcal. There are options for making a menu of a day off from protein, carbohydrate, or combination foods. Let's consider some variants of unloading days.

Kefir day: 1.5 liters of low-fat kefir for 6-8 meals in 2-3 hours. Proteins - 45 g, fats - 0.75 g, carbohydrates - 57 g; 450 kcal.

Sprouting day: 1.5 L of curdled milk for 6-8 doses in 2-3 hours. Proteins - 45 g, fats - 0.75 g, carbohydrates - 57 g; 450 kcal.

Curd day: 600 g skim curd, 50 grams of sugar, 2 cups of coffee with milk, 2 cups of rose hip broth is divided into 4-6 receptions. Proteins - 108 g, fats - 3,6 g, carbohydrates - 59 g; 703 kcal.

Meat day: 360 g of boiled meat without fat with a garnish of fresh or sauerkrained washed cabbage for 4 meals, 2 cups of coffee with milk without sugar and 2 cups of broth of rose hips. Proteins - 99 g, fats - 37 g carbohydrates - 6.5 g; 764 kcal.

Apple day: 1.5 kg of apples for 5-6 receptions. Proteins - 6 g, fats - 0, carbohydrates - 170 g; 690 kcal.

Watermelon day: 1.5 kg of watermelon (without a peel) for 5-6 receptions. Proteins - 14 g, fats - 0, carbohydrates - 184 g; 570 kcal

Cucumber day: 1.5 kg of fresh cucumbers for 5 meals. Proteins - 12 g, fats - 0, carbohydrates - 45 g; 225 kcal.

Vegetable day: 1,5 kg of raw vegetables (cabbage, carrots, tomatoes, zucchini, greens, parsley, dill, lettuce, green beans during the day for 5-6 salads with 5 g of vegetable oil added to each serving. - 14 g, fats - 30 grams, carbohydrates - about 180 g. Caloric content is approximately 750 kcal.

Fish Day: 400 g of boiled fish, 0.6-0.9 kg of vegetables (cabbage, carrots, cucumbers, tomatoes), 2 cups of tea without sugar for 5 meals. Proteins - 11 g, fats - 10 g, carbohydrates - 64 g; 641 kcal.

It is recommended to use the technique of a fasting day not only for people who are in the course of hardware correction of a figure, but also for all who are not indifferent to their health and longevity.

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