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Tempering of preschool children: principles, means, types, methods

Tempering preschool children is one of the most important tasks for parents if they want to see their baby healthy in the future. To date, the number of often ill children is progressively increasing, so the forefront of different methods of preventing diseases in children. Hardening is one of the oldest methods, but very effective.

Indications for the procedure

Hardening is an old method of healing the body, which is known for a long time. Now many people are skeptical about this method, because people are used to treating diseases, and not to prevent their development. To date, hardening, as a method of preventing diseases, is recognized by medicine. And the effectiveness of the method can be explained by scientific facts and concepts.

In human physiology, there is the concept of the reactivity of the organism. This concept means that the human body can respond to any damage or disease by a specific response. For example, when a virus enters the human body, it first detains itself on the mucous membrane of the upper respiratory tract due to the action of the cilia of the epithelium. This is the reaction of the body to the penetration of someone else's agent, that is, reactivity. But often the virus can go further due to the fact that there is insufficient response to its penetration, which causes the development of the disease. Hardening is one of the methods that allows to increase the reactivity of the child's body, that is, it increases the protective forces. Therefore, the main goal of tempering children of preschool age is to increase the immune and non-immune defense to prevent frequent illnesses.

It is said that when a child is brought up, habits are formed in him, which then form the basis of his life. This applies to health, and the habit of "not getting sick". Therefore, the child must be tempered immediately after birth, but the weight should be used with knowledge and in moderation.

Now there are many methods for the earliest development of the child as an individual, starting right after birth. And hardening of young children is one of the points of such early development. Naturally, not everyone shows this method, but it can be precisely said that it will not hurt anyone. There are certain indications when it is necessary to carry out such a method of recovery. And the indications for carrying out tempering for children are limited to those cases when the child is often sick. It would seem that these are incompatible concepts, because if a child is already sick, additional risk factors in the form of cold water or air will not benefit him. But this is not so. And the main task of hardening for often sick children is to reduce the number of episodes of the disease and make them easier. This can be achieved by accustoming the child to a temperature that he will endure, and then not get sick. There are also indications for conduction - these are babies with frequent obstructive bronchitis, which subsequently have a threat of developing bronchial asthma. It is important that in this case, hypothermia is the trigger factor for further aggravation or complication of the disease. One should also note one of the indications - this is a child's heredity. If mom or dad belonged to a group of often ill children, then it is more likely that the child will have similar problems. Therefore, it is necessary to accustom a child to the action of unfavorable environmental factors, which can affect the morbidity.

How does it work? It often happens that the first child in the family is a great happiness with which her mother does not know what to do. And here the question of "dressing" a child is of great importance. Mom may be unsure that she should dress a child on the street, so the main principle is "not to be frozen." With this, the child's upbringing and health begins. After all, if a child is accustomed to constant wrapping, then the slightest breeze or a sip of cold water may later give rise to a peak incidence. If the child is tempered and the mother is able to do this, the weather conditions are not capable of increasing the incidence of the baby. So the hardening process works - it teaches both the mother and the baby's organism to the conditions of the external environment.

There are some principles for tempering pre-school children that must be respected for success. First, to begin hardening only if the child is completely healthy, because then the child's body has many potential forces for this. Another principle is the systematic repetition of procedures with a gradual increase in the load. Only in this case the body develops a habit and a correct reaction. It is very important to start the tempering process to a minimum of 14 repetitions, only in this case it is possible to increase the reactivity of the organism. Also an important principle of the hardening process is an individual approach. After all, different types of procedures are suitable for each child, and if the child does not like the process, it will not bring the expected result. Therefore, the consent of the child and his personal participation must always be taken into account. After all, the process of hardening itself can be organized in the form of a game. If parents participate with the child, this will increase his desire and will be an excellent example.

The main thing that you need to remember - you can be tempered and necessary for almost all the children, because this is a great way to be healthy.

Technique of the hardening of children of preschool age

Tempering of preschool children at home is the most convenient way. Even the child in a relaxed home environment responds better to this. To begin, of course, you need to talk with your child about what it is and why you need to deal with hardening. Preparation for the hardening process should begin with consultation with the doctor. You need to make sure that the child is healthy at the moment, and get acquainted with the main methods and techniques of hardening. For this, you can consult a doctor-physiotherapist.

The technique of carrying out different methods differs, but there are general principles that need to be followed. According to the temperature characteristics of air, there are three variants - above 25 degrees, from 15 to 25 and below 15 degrees. If it is a question of tempering the sun, you need to start with the temperature mode of the second option and gradually move to a temperature greater than 25. To start the child, you need to bring it to a place where there is scattered sunlight for ten minutes. The head must be covered. Further during the next five sessions, the time spent in the sun should be increased by two minutes. And for the seventh lesson, you need to change the temperature regime by more than 25 degrees. But the difference should not be very sharp, not more than seven degrees. Exposure to the sun should also start with ten minutes and gradually increase in a similar way. In general, the course can be from two weeks to a minimum of three weeks. For the best result, you need to repeat the courses two or three times a year.

The technique of water hardening also has some features. There are somewhat different temperature regimes - 35-37 degrees, 20-25 and below 20 degrees. Starting hardening with water is better with a simple wiping. You need to start at a water temperature of 35-37. To do this, you need to undress the child and wipe with such water. It is very important that the temperature of the air in the room or on the street be within 17-19 degrees. After two procedures, the water temperature should be reduced to 20 degrees, and after two more procedures - to 15. Next, you need to go to dousing with water 20 degrees. This dousing should be repeated every other day, and after five to six procedures you can go for daily douche. The shower can be used after a course of douches daily, especially a contrast shower. To do this, you need to change the temperature from high to low. This method is convenient, because it can be used at any time of the year, even during the bathing of the child.

Tempering in winter has its own peculiarities, here it is very necessary to treat the temperature regime. You need to start with light clothes and walk at a temperature of not less than 5 degrees. Then you can gradually reduce the amount of clothing, but at the same time leave the hat. Then the temperature can be reduced to 0, while walking on the street or doing exercises, but not just stand in the cold. The child should at this time breathe through the nose, and can breathe out through the mouth. The headgear is necessary, but the clothes can be in the form of an autumn jacket that does not let the wind pass. More tempered by children at a lower temperature is not recommended.

Tempering of preschool children in kindergarten is carried out more often in the form of daily walks on the street. There are no special programs for tempering in children's establishments, since there are many often sick children and it is difficult to unite them into one group that would be engaged in this. But it is possible, at the request of parents, to organize walks and exercise with children in the morning, when they only come to the kindergarten.

Methods of hardening and how to use them

There are several methods of hardening, and they are used in different cases and for different children. The most common methods are hardening by air, water, and the sun. These are the factors that can influence the health of the child and this influence can be changed.

Tempering of children of preschool age can be carried out in several ways. The respiratory system of children reacts to any air with the help of adaptation mechanisms. One such mechanism is the movement of the cilia of the epithelium of the nasal mucosa, which are aimed at warming the air, if it is cold. Therefore, hardening in air can be carried out with the help of cold air. After the end of the course of procedures, the number of cilia of the epithelium, their activity and function are increased, which makes it possible to react better to cold air in the future.

Quenching with water is used most often, since it is believed that the effect on the body while systemic. Methods of tempering preschool children with water are different and can be used as the load increases. Use douche, wipe, shower with water of different temperatures. You can start with a simple wipe, and only then you can reach the shower. Using this method, a gradual decrease in temperature contributes to the fact that the internal organs get used to working in this mode. The immune system of children first reacts violently to such changes and may even be an exacerbation of the disease. After a few sessions, a reaction is developed that allows you to react at low temperatures to a protective reaction, as well as a normal, "habitual for the body" temperature. Tempering the air of preschool children can be used even in winter, then you can use snow instead of water. But we must not forget about the gradualness of such activities.

Tempering of children of preschool age by the sun is the same effective method as other methods. The effect of this process is the synthesis of many vitamins and biologically active substances under the influence of sunlight. The baby's skin not only protects the body from harmful substances, but also it has cells that synthesize active forms of vitamins. For example, under the influence of the sun, vitamin D. Is synthesized. This vitamin not only provides for the growth of the child, but the growth and development of many cells in the body. Immune cells and cells of unspecific defense also depend on vitamin D. Therefore, sun baths for a child are very important and they must be present, but only in moderation. A child can not sunbathe in direct sunlight, as an adult. For hardening, only scattered sunlight can be used and only during the minimum radioactivity of sunlight - this is before 11 am and after 16 pm.

There are also non-traditional methods of tempering preschool children, which include the use of physical activity. Of course, simple dances or wrestling do not so much enter into the concept of hardening, as more serious loads. For today it is possible to see some parents who force children to engage in professional sports. Sports tones blood vessels, improves the heart and other muscles, improves coordination and breathing. All this helps to adapt the body to many unfavorable conditions. But excessive sports exhausts the child, and not vice versa strengthen. Therefore, such activities can not be called hardening, if this is a measure.

Contraindications to the procedure

Contraindications to the conduct may be general and temporary. Temporary contraindications - this is an acute pathology or disease of the child at the moment. For example, if a child has a respiratory infection, intestinal infection or other disease, then hardening should be postponed. Also, if during the course of the course the child is sick, then the lessons should be interrupted, and then start again, and not from the moment they are interrupted. To temporary contraindications is also the insufficient weight of the child, the period after the vaccination.

General contraindications are conditions such as immunodeficiencies, leukemia, severe anemia, congenital malformations. Such severe and chronic diseases must necessarily be discussed with the doctor about such appointments.

Consequences after the procedure

The consequences after the procedure can be with the wrong technique. Often there can be an acute illness in the form of bronchitis, pneumonia, in case of improper use of different temperatures. Complications after the procedure can be in the form of exacerbation of chronic diseases.

Care after the procedure

Care after the procedure of hardening is to wipe the child with a dry towel and put on dry clothes if there were water procedures. If the child has sunbathing, then after the procedure you need to give the child a drink, to restore the water balance. Care after air baths is to simply moisturize the skin to avoid dryness after wind. It is important after any procedure of hardening, so that the child will eat to restore strength and synthesize energy. 

Summarizing all the methods, indications and contraindications to the hardening, it remains only to give advice to parents on tempering preschool children.

  1. Before the beginning it is necessary to explain to the child what for he should be engaged in hardening, about that he will grow up healthy and strong.
  2. You need to start only when the baby is healthy.
  3. It is necessary to consult with the doctor on the main rules of procedure.
  4. We must constantly praise the child for progress.

Tempering of preschool children is one of the few means of preventing diseases that is available at home. Such exercises are not complicated in technology, and they develop in the child not only strong immunity, but also discipline. It is very important to instill in children not only love for books and learning, but also for a healthy lifestyle. 

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Medical expert editor

Portnov Alexey Alexandrovich

Education: Kiev National Medical University. A.A. Bogomolets, Specialty - "General Medicine"

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You can start the tempering procedure at any time of the year. The main thing is that it happens gradually and regularly. Compliance with the rules of tempering allows improving the health of the child and reducing the frequency of visits to the pediatrician.

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