Tempering of preschool children at home is the most convenient way. Even the child in a relaxed home environment responds better to this. To begin, of course, you need to talk with your child about what it is and why you need to deal with hardening. Preparation for the hardening process should begin with consultation with the doctor. You need to make sure that the child is healthy at the moment, and get acquainted with the main methods and techniques of hardening. For this, you can consult a doctor-physiotherapist.
The technique of carrying out different methods differs, but there are general principles that need to be followed. According to the temperature characteristics of air, there are three variants - above 25 degrees, from 15 to 25 and below 15 degrees. If it is a question of tempering the sun, you need to start with the temperature mode of the second option and gradually move to a temperature greater than 25. To start the child, you need to bring it to a place where there is scattered sunlight for ten minutes. The head must be covered. Further during the next five sessions, the time spent in the sun should be increased by two minutes. And for the seventh lesson, you need to change the temperature regime by more than 25 degrees. But the difference should not be very sharp, not more than seven degrees. Exposure to the sun should also start with ten minutes and gradually increase in a similar way. In general, the course can be from two weeks to a minimum of three weeks. For the best result, you need to repeat the courses two or three times a year.
The technique of water hardening also has some features. There are somewhat different temperature regimes - 35-37 degrees, 20-25 and below 20 degrees. Starting hardening with water is better with a simple wiping. You need to start at a water temperature of 35-37. To do this, you need to undress the child and wipe with such water. It is very important that the temperature of the air in the room or on the street be within 17-19 degrees. After two procedures, the water temperature should be reduced to 20 degrees, and after two more procedures - to 15. Next, you need to go to dousing with water 20 degrees. This dousing should be repeated every other day, and after five to six procedures you can go for daily douche. The shower can be used after a course of douches daily, especially a contrast shower. To do this, you need to change the temperature from high to low. This method is convenient, because it can be used at any time of the year, even during the bathing of the child.
Tempering in winter has its own peculiarities, here it is very necessary to treat the temperature regime. You need to start with light clothes and walk at a temperature of not less than 5 degrees. Then you can gradually reduce the amount of clothing, but at the same time leave the hat. Then the temperature can be reduced to 0, while walking on the street or doing exercises, but not just stand in the cold. The child should at this time breathe through the nose, and can breathe out through the mouth. The headgear is necessary, but the clothes can be in the form of an autumn jacket that does not let the wind pass. More tempered by children at a lower temperature is not recommended.
Tempering of preschool children in kindergarten is carried out more often in the form of daily walks on the street. There are no special programs for tempering in children's establishments, since there are many often sick children and it is difficult to unite them into one group that would be engaged in this. But it is possible, at the request of parents, to organize walks and exercise with children in the morning, when they only come to the kindergarten.
Methods of hardening and how to use them
There are several methods of hardening, and they are used in different cases and for different children. The most common methods are hardening by air, water, and the sun. These are the factors that can influence the health of the child and this influence can be changed.
Tempering of children of preschool age can be carried out in several ways. The respiratory system of children reacts to any air with the help of adaptation mechanisms. One such mechanism is the movement of the cilia of the epithelium of the nasal mucosa, which are aimed at warming the air, if it is cold. Therefore, hardening in air can be carried out with the help of cold air. After the end of the course of procedures, the number of cilia of the epithelium, their activity and function are increased, which makes it possible to react better to cold air in the future.
Quenching with water is used most often, since it is believed that the effect on the body while systemic. Methods of tempering preschool children with water are different and can be used as the load increases. Use douche, wipe, shower with water of different temperatures. You can start with a simple wipe, and only then you can reach the shower. Using this method, a gradual decrease in temperature contributes to the fact that the internal organs get used to working in this mode. The immune system of children first reacts violently to such changes and may even be an exacerbation of the disease. After a few sessions, a reaction is developed that allows you to react at low temperatures to a protective reaction, as well as a normal, "habitual for the body" temperature. Tempering the air of preschool children can be used even in winter, then you can use snow instead of water. But we must not forget about the gradualness of such activities.
Tempering of children of preschool age by the sun is the same effective method as other methods. The effect of this process is the synthesis of many vitamins and biologically active substances under the influence of sunlight. The baby's skin not only protects the body from harmful substances, but also it has cells that synthesize active forms of vitamins. For example, under the influence of the sun, vitamin D. Is synthesized. This vitamin not only provides for the growth of the child, but the growth and development of many cells in the body. Immune cells and cells of unspecific defense also depend on vitamin D. Therefore, sun baths for a child are very important and they must be present, but only in moderation. A child can not sunbathe in direct sunlight, as an adult. For hardening, only scattered sunlight can be used and only during the minimum radioactivity of sunlight - this is before 11 am and after 16 pm.
There are also non-traditional methods of tempering preschool children, which include the use of physical activity. Of course, simple dances or wrestling do not so much enter into the concept of hardening, as more serious loads. For today it is possible to see some parents who force children to engage in professional sports. Sports tones blood vessels, improves the heart and other muscles, improves coordination and breathing. All this helps to adapt the body to many unfavorable conditions. But excessive sports exhausts the child, and not vice versa strengthen. Therefore, such activities can not be called hardening, if this is a measure.