Period of puberty

, medical expert
Last reviewed: 01.06.2018

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Individuals of the female and males have significant differences even during infancy. Both appearance and behavior of boys and girls initially have distinctive features. During puberty, these differences become more noticeable and significant.

They are conditioned at first only by genetically incorporated features, and in the transition period also by sex hormones, which begin to affect the body at this time. During puberty, serious changes in behavior and appearance occur in both girls and boys. These changes are a necessary process for the continuation of the genus, since their consequence is the ability to reproduce the offspring. Sex hormones, intensified during this period, stimulate the development of secondary sexual characteristics, a change in the nature of the adolescent. The maturing child becomes irritable, impertinent, impressionable, there is a sexual attraction to the opposite sex. The desire to please representatives of the other sex makes the adolescent pay more attention to his appearance, react more sharply to changes in his body. At this moment, more than ever, an adult person needs the understanding and support of adults.

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Characteristics of the period of puberty

Characteristics of the period of puberty differs in boys and girls, but the basis of this life stage is a single mechanism. Normally, the process of physical and sexual development occurs synchronously.

The first signs of puberty come when there is pigmentation of the external genitalia, the appearance of hair on the pubic region, axillary hollows. In girls, puberty occurs somewhat faster than boys in an average of 2 years.

In parallel, there are changes in the behavior of adolescents, because all the physiological changes in the body cause quite justified fear. Many adolescents begin to think that with them everything is not all right, and in parallel there is an interest in the opposite sex and at such times one needs to stoically treat the child's behavior and morally support it. The psychic of the growing boy or girl is very receptive to any comments, criticism, and if the child understands that he is different from his peers, friends, he begins to seriously think about his own inferiority. At this stage, parents should do everything possible to explain that puberty is an uncontrolled process and changes may come a little earlier or later than others, as each person, each organism, is individual.

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Period of puberty in boys

The period of puberty in boys occurs in several periods and lasts more than one year. Sexual maturation in boys is characterized by the onset of hormonal maturity of the sexual glands, comes about at the age of eleven, during adolescence (13-18 years), puberty reaches its peak. After eighteen or nineteen years, there comes a period of sexual maturity.

In the period of puberty, or as it is basically called, the period of puberty, the boys show secondary sexual characteristics and the sexual organs are formed, the full function of the sex glands is established. The processes of growing up in the male body mostly occur under the influence of testosterone. Initially, the testes increase, which are responsible for the production of hormones that stimulate the production of spermatozoa. The size of the penis increases. At this time, there are the first erections and pollutions - uncontrolled ejaculation at night .. Also, in parallel with sexual development there is a strong leap in physical development - the boy begins to grow, the male-type bone system is formed, the voice begins to change, the size of the penis, testicles, nipples become more coarse, full-fledged viable reproductive cells (spermatozoa) begin to reproduce.

According to the male type, hair begins to grow, almost immediately after the onset of genital growth, in the pubic region, on the hips and abdomen to the navel. After that begins the growth of hair in the armpits, on the chest, around the anus, over the upper lip, on the chin. The number and density of hair varies individually. Androgens stimulate an increase in the larynx, the vocal cords thicken and lengthen, the voice becomes lower and rougher. In parallel with these changes, the whole body grows, muscle mass increases. The figure takes on a masculine shape: the shoulders become wider than the pelvis. The sebaceous glands work hard, the skin becomes greasy, acne may develop. At boys during puberty, as well as at girls, the smell of sweat changes.

The timing in which sexual development occurs can fluctuate - this is affected by a variety of indirect factors, for example:

  • Health problems, surgery or serious injuries.
  • Violation of the nervous and endocrine systems.
  • Features of a constitution, phenotypic differences.

It is always necessary to take into account the fact that the sexual development in boys depends on the individual characteristics of the organism, so it is useless to enter this period in a rigid time frame, just like panic. Parents should never discuss the problems of the child with him, and at the time of maturation treat him with due patience and understanding. If you still have doubts about premature sexual development or its delay, it is better to see a doctor and get professional advice.

The period of puberty in girls

Sometimes the parents of a young girl yesterday, when she heard from the people around her about the notorious expression from others about how other people's children turn out to grow quickly, realize that they did not understand when their sweet child turned into an angular and awkward teenager, It's annoying.

What leads to these changes in the body of a young woman? The answer is simple: in the organism of yesterday's girl, hormones called estrogens "played". They force her body to grow and develop intensively: hair appears in the armpits, as well as in the groin, the breast grows. A monthly adult girl observes bloody discharge, which is called monthly. The period of puberty in girls continues on average about 2 years. Its onset is most often eleven years, and the onset of menstruation - by thirteen. One can not ignore the fact that the time for the onset of puberty can individually vary - the normal beginning of the restructuring of the body can occur from nine to fifteen years. Usually this is due to heredity: if the mother's menses have begun earlier or later than most of her peers, then the daughter, most likely, they will deviate in one direction or another. However, too early or late the beginning of puberty - up to eight or after fifteen - an occasion for a visit to the doctor, since, perhaps, treatment with hormones is necessary.

Girls, whose puberty has started too early, should be under special supervision of teachers, since mockery and inadequate perception among peers are possible.

For the beginning of the period of puberty of girls, first of all, significant increases in growth - up to ten centimeters - and mass - up to five to six kilograms are characteristic. Increases appetite, which is normal, because for such intensive growth requires building material. There is a so-called teenage angularity and "incoherence", which usually disappears after some time. There is an increase in mammary glands. The waist becomes thinner and the thighs wider. In the field of the pubis and underarms, hair begins to grow. Sweat acquires a specific strong odor. This is due to the appearance in its composition of fatty acids. The skin becomes oily, acne may appear. There are discharges from the vagina - menstruation.

In this period, as never before, the girl needs the support of adults, especially the mother. Girls are very sensitive and vulnerable in matters relating to their appearance, so you need to teach her how to properly care for the skin, help in the selection of special means.

The period of puberty in girls comes earlier than in boys, but because of individual characteristics, it can delay or advance earlier. Normal flowing puberty will be the key to the fact that the girl's reproductive system will normally form and will make it possible in the future to become a mother.

At girls puberty on the average lasts 8-10 years, the whole period is usually divided into three stages:

  • 1 stage. At the age of 7-9 years, the structure of the hypothalamus ripens, gonadotropin is released every 5-7 days.
  • 2 stage. At the age of 10-13 years, the production of estrogen in the ovaries increases, daily cyclicity is fixed.
  • 3 stage. At the age of 14-17 years, a stable hypothalamic-pituitary system of a two-phase ovulatory cycle is formed. This indicates that the girl's reproductive system is incorporated and works fully.

Also, during puberty, along with the formation of the reproductive system, there are other physiological changes: body weight, growth, hair under the armpits, pubic growth, mature vaginal mucosa, the mammary glands swell, increase in size, acne, voice change, the reproductive system completes the formation.

The period of puberty in girls also requires attention from the parents. The girl should receive proper attention and care, and not be left alone with fears, the appearance of which is inevitable. If there is a suspicion of a deviation in sexual development, girls need to see a doctor - this is a guarantee that the girl will become a full-fledged healthy woman in the future.

The period of puberty is not an easy process in the body and mind of an adult. Uncontrolled emotions, frequent changes of mood, abrupt changes in the body and its functions depress the child. The task of adults to be with him, support, help and, if necessary, approve.

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