What tests should I take in planning a pregnancy?
What tests should I take in planning a pregnancy? This question was faced not by one married couple. Basically, two types of tests are prescribed: analysis for infection and, if necessary, additional tests.
Analyzes for infections are prescribed to determine the presence of antibodies to the most common viruses and infections. This is one of the main tests assigned to women. These are tests for:
- The presence of antibodies to toxoplasmosis, the virus of herpes, rubella, cytomegalovirus, human papillomavirus;
- Antibodies to HIV, syphilis, gonococci, mycoplasma, gardnerelle;
- Antibodies to E. Coli, staphylococcus;
- Blood clotting assay.
If, suddenly, as a result of the research, any disease develops, then both the woman and the man need to undergo the appropriate treatment, and only after re-passing the analysis and the negative result is to start planning. Sex infections are very contagious and during pregnancy and childbirth can harm the child and even cause developmental abnormalities. Especially dangerous are rubella, toxoplasmosis and cytomegalovirus - these infections can provoke deformity of the fetus and lead to death.
Additional tests are prescribed if a history of irregular menstrual cycle, a problem with conception, there were abortions or miscarriages. Carried out a series of analyzes and studies - on the patency of the fallopian tubes, sex hormones, the state of the endocrine system.
Compulsory tests when planning pregnancy
What mandatory tests in planning pregnancy should be handed to partners, you can clarify in the family planning center or a gynecologist. The mandatory analysis includes a clinical blood test, a biochemical blood test, a general urine test, blood on the hormonal mirror, ultrasound of the small pelvis.
Based on the results of all necessary tests, doctors will be able to make sure that both partners are healthy and the woman's body is ready for pregnancy and bearing. The presence of any latent or obvious infection is dangerous for the fetus, as it can cause malformations and fetal death, and it is very risky to treat a woman during pregnancy with antibiotics.
Mandatory tests in pregnancy planning, included in the overall complex:
- Analysis for hepatitis B and C.
- HIV testing.
- Analysis for syphilis.
- Smear on the microflora.
- PTSR on the latent infections.
It is important for future mothers to pass an analysis for the detection of antibodies to rubella, toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus. If antibodies in the blood are not found, then you need to vaccinate at least three months before conception.
Additional tests are assigned if it is necessary to determine genetic compatibility or to make a prediction of possible genetic deviations that can be inherited.
Analyzes for women in the planning of pregnancy
Analyzes for women in the planning of pregnancy surrender in several stages and affect all the systems of the body.
The first thing you need to assess the general condition of the woman's body, for this, the expectant mother should visit such specialists:
- The gynecologist - consultation of the gynecologist is very important, it is the profiling doctor who will lead the entire pregnancy.
- A dentist - timely examination of the oral cavity and treatment of patients with teeth will relieve the risk of a dangerous infection.
- Otolaryngologist. Diseases of the ENT organs are also dangerous and even in chronic form will be a constant source of infection.
- Cardiologist. An additional burden on the cardiovascular system of a woman during pregnancy and childbirth can be harmful if there are diseases or pathologies in this area.
All diseases that doctors will identify should be cured strictly before conception.
Analyzes for women in the planning of pregnancy, which must necessarily pass the planning of conception:
- a blood test for hepatitis B and C, syphilis, HIV, antibodies to herpes and cytomegalovirus infection, rubella, toxoplasmosis;
- a smear from the vagina to determine the flora;
- US of mammary glands, organs of small pelvis;
- PCR-study of scraping, produced from the cervix uteri - for the presence of causative agents of herpes, cytomegalovirus, chlamydia, mycoplasmosis, ureaplasmosis;
- Ultrasound of the thyroid gland;
- general urine analysis;
- general and biochemical blood test;
- cytology of scraping from the cervix;
- blood clotting assay;
- a study of the level of thyroid hormone TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone of the pituitary gland, regulating the function of the thyroid gland), T3 (thyroxine), and T4 (triiodothyronine).
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Analyzes for men in planning pregnancy
Analyzes to the man at planning of pregnancy too it is necessary to hand over, but not in all cases.
- Consultation of a geneticist. Consultation of a geneticist is not appointed in all cases. Only if a woman or a man has a history or pathology inherited from Down syndrome, schizophrenia, etc. In addition, if the age of the man is more than 40 years, then the consultation of the geneticist is also necessary. Also, genetic counseling is sent to women who have a history of miscarriages or were born dead children.
- Spermogram and compatibility analysis. If during the year the couple does not manage to have a baby, then first of all the man is scheduled to undergo an analysis for spermogram - this will give information on the activity of spermatozoa and their percentage in sperm. So you can identify infertility in men and prescribe a treatment plan.
- Also, after long attempts to conceive a child, a compatibility test is prescribed, but there are few such pairs and it is rarely prescribed.
- Fluorography. A man must have an X-ray examination of the chest to exclude the possibility of tuberculosis.
- Blood test for infection. A man, like a woman, must necessarily donate blood for HIV, syphilis, etc. Especially in cases when the analysis of a woman's blood indicates the presence of pathogens of infections and sexually transmitted viruses.
Analyzes for a man when planning a pregnancy must be taken necessarily, because the more healthy a man at the time of conception, the higher the probability of a healthy baby. And you can take all necessary tests in any clinic in your city.
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Hormone Analysis in Pregnancy Planning
Analysis of hormones in the planning of pregnancy is not of secondary importance in the preparation for conception. Based on the study of the hormonal background, it is possible to judge the failure of the endocrine functions of the body and help to establish the cause of infertility. It is necessary to take an analysis for hormones if a woman has male hair type, male and female weight above the norm, fat and acne prone skin, and age after 35 years.
There are factors that will determine the purpose of the hormone assay:
- Menstrual cycle dysfunction.
- In the anamnesis there were miscarriages, a frozen fetus, stillbirth.
- More than a year can not get pregnant.
When planning pregnancy, it is worth paying attention to such hormones:
- Progesterone. He is responsible for attaching the embryo to the walls of the uterus and ensures its development.
- Follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH). Responsible for the growth of oocytes, responsible for the production of estrogen. In men responsible for the maturation of spermatozoa.
- Luteinizing hormone (LH) - regulates the maturation of the egg in the follicle, participates in the formation of the yellow body. In men, it contributes to the full maturation of spermatozoa.
- Prolactinum - stimulates ovulation, and after birth is responsible for lactation.
- Estradiol. It plays an important role in the development of the uterine mucosa and its preparation for pregnancy.
- Testosterone is a male hormone. If his percentage of a woman is too high, it is fraught with the lack of ovulation or death of the fetus, if the pregnancy has already come.
Before giving the test, high physical activity, smoking, emotional stress are prohibited. You need to give in the morning, on an empty stomach.
Analyzes of infection in the planning of pregnancy
Analyzes of infection in planning pregnancy should be given in the first place - the only way to prevent the risk of infection of the fetus and causing it harm during the treatment. So, the necessary tests for infection in the planning of pregnancy:
- RW (blood test for syphilis). It can be false-positive for tumors, diabetes, after drinking alcohol, etc.
- HbSAg - hepatitis B.
- HCV is hepatitis C.
- Separately, you should take a blood test for rubella. This is a particularly dangerous infection. If a woman has suffered this infection earlier, then she develops a permanent immunity. In a pregnant woman who does not get sick, rubella can pass easily, and the fetus causes severe deformities and malformations. At a high risk of infection, vaccination is indicated, but conception will have to be postponed for several months.
- Blood for toxoplasmosis. Severe infection, which animals suffer. You can get infected by eating raw or poorly cooked meat, in contact with homeless animals.
- Cytomegalovirus. May provoke intrauterine fetal death or may be a reason soon after birth. Transmitted airborne, with blood transfusions, sexual contact.
- Herpes is genital. Especially dangerous is infection during pregnancy. If a very high percentage of antibodies, then you can not plan pregnancy. The doctor then appoints the correct treatment.
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Genetic Analysis in Pregnancy Planning
Genetic analysis in the planning of pregnancy makes more and more couples wanting to have a baby. Recently, the number of couples who care not only about material readiness to become parents, but also want the future child to be healthy, has increased.
Every parent wants a child to be healthy, but absolutely healthy married couples in our time practically do not meet - every second person in a history has this or that hereditary disease.
Consult a geneticist for advice at least three months before the proposed pregnancy. Over this period of time, you can conduct all the necessary tests and studies and prescribe treatment.
There are 6 major groups with a high risk of having a child with pathologies:
- In the family of one of the parents there are severe hereditary diseases.
- The woman in the history had miscarriages or were born dead children with anomalies.
- The young age of parents (under 18 years) or vice versa, the age exceeds 35-40 years.
- The couple are blood relatives.
- Living in an abnormal, contaminated zone, constant contact with harmful substances and chemicals.
- A woman takes vital medicines that can affect the formation and development of the fetus.
In the course of basic studies, additional tests are prescribed:
- Spermogram - to exclude the pathology of sperm;
- Cytogenetic examination - determination of the quality and quantity of chromosomes;
- HLA-typing - to determine the degree of tissue compatibility for unclear infertility causes.
Blood test for pregnancy planning
The blood test in pregnancy planning includes several mandatory steps that allow to exclude all possible pathologies and infections and will give information about the general condition of the woman's body:
A general blood test will tell you about possible inflammatory processes in the body. Also give information on the number of blood cells.
- Blood for HIV, hepatitis A, B, C, RV (3 times during pregnancy)
Blood for these diseases is surrendered from the veins and on an empty stomach. Timely diagnosis of these diseases will help to adjust the most effective and safe treatment that does not harm the fetus and the pregnant woman. If a woman ignores the surrender of these tests, she will have to give birth in the observatory.
- Biochemistry of blood (with primary treatment, at 18 and 30 weeks of pregnancy)
The biochemical analysis deciphers the data of protein, lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. It is mandatory to carry out analysis for total protein and sugar level, serum iron. Additional biochemical analyzes are prescribed for chronic pathologies (with pyelonephritis, diabetes, dyskinesia biliary tract).
- Study of coagulation system:
The analysis of blood from a vein on a coagulogram, that is on definition of speed of coagulability of a blood. Thus, the tendency to bleeding is determined, and this can cause a miscarriage.
- Blood type and Rh factor
- Detection of TORCH infections
To determine TORCH infections, blood from the vein is taken for antibodies to toxoplasmosis, herpes, rubella virus, cytomegalovirus. If a high percentage of Ig M is detected in the blood, this indicates an acute illness and requires treatment if a high percentage of Ig G means that the woman has already recovered from the infection and developed a persistent immunity.
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