Alopecia is a disease that affects patients of any age. Alopecia can be of several types, each with characteristic symptoms. Consider the main types of hair loss in women:
- Androgenic - occurs because of increased production of male sex hormones, which provoke the formation of dihydrotestosterone. The substance inhibits the functioning of the hair follicles, the hairs become thin, lose their color and stop growing. This type of baldness can also arise due to the action of hereditary factors.
- Diffuse - is associated with disruption in the endocrine system, hard diets, unbalanced diet, various diseases. Locks drop evenly over the entire surface of the head, become very thin, lose volume.
- Focal - proceeds with an itch and an irritation of separate sites of a skin. The strands fall out in beams, leaving after themselves the bald patches of round and oval shape throughout the head. It occurs because of hormonal imbalance, metabolic disturbances or as a result of genetic predisposition.
- Cicatricial - chemical and thermal burns of the skin of the head leave behind cicatricial changes, that is, scars. At the site of damage, the hair follicles die and are not restored any more. The pathological condition can arise after infectious and viral diseases of a chronic nature, deep purulent pimples on the head.
- Traumatic - occurs in women who for a long period of time wore tight hair. Because of this, supply of the dermis with oxygen is disturbed, which negatively affects the condition of the bulbs. A disastrous effect has a rough combing, an increase in curls, dreadlocks, African braids.
- Psychosomatic - this type occurs because of problems with the central nervous system. In disorders of the nervous system, patients themselves pull out hairs, eyebrows and eyelashes. A painful condition is accompanied by depression, nervous tension, irritability.
- Endocrine (hormonal) - occurs due to diseases of the thyroid gland and imbalance of the hormones of this organ.
The type of baldness depends on the method of its treatment and further preventive recommendations.
Diffuse hair loss in women
The most common type of alopecia faced by women is diffuse. Loss of curls can reach 150-1000 hairs a day. The disease leads to a violation of hair nutrition, deterioration of their quality. This entails not only cosmetic, but also psychological problems.
Diffuse hair loss is characterized by a uniform hairdressing. About 40% of women under the age of 50 are facing this problem. The mechanism of its development is associated with a violation of one of the stages of hair growth.
The main causes of diffuse alopecia are:
- Medicamentous therapy with retinoids, beta-blockers, cytostatics, anticonvulsant and other drugs.
- Exacerbation of chronic diseases.
- Gormonozawisimye pathology.
- Thyroid dysfunction.
- Stress and emotional stress.
- Infectious diseases.
- Immunodeficiency conditions.
The methods of his treatment depend on the causes of the morbid condition. Therapy may include taking medications (hormones, antibiotics, vitamins), physiotherapy procedures to speed up the growth of strands and strengthen them. Also local stimulation of follicles with the help of shampoos, masks, sprays, which improve blood supply and microcirculation, is necessary.
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Focal hair loss in women
The main age of women who have encountered focal afforestation is 15-35 years. This type of alopecia does not harm the general condition of the body, but is an essential cosmetic defect. Alopecia, left untreated, quickly begins to progress and provokes severe disorders from the nervous system.
Focal hair loss is most often associated with the effect of autoimmune factors. The body's defensive system incorrectly identifies the follicles, taking them for alien tissues. Because of this, in patients with severe disease, immunoglobulins are detected in the structure of hair follicles.
There are a number of factors that influence the development of the disease:
- Genetic predisposition.
- Prolonged viral or infectious diseases.
- Sinusitis, tonsillitis, dental pathology.
- Disorders from the endocrine system.
The etiology of focal alopecia is associated with hormonal imbalance, which entails disturbances in the endocrine system. Pathological functioning of the vegetative system leads to problems with microcirculation. Spasmodic capillaries and arteries increase the viscosity of the blood. This, in turn, contributes to a slowing of blood circulation and a deterioration in the nutrition of the follicles.
Alopecia areata has several forms:
- Local - oval skirts.
- Lentovidnaya - the zone without hair is most often located from the back of the neck to the temples, which visually resembles a tape.
- Subtotal - manifested by small foci, which gradually spread, increase and merge.
- Total - a uniform loss of strands, it is also possible the loss of eyebrows and eyelashes.
- Universal - areas with bald patches appear on different parts of the head, gradually creeping and again recurring.
- Nest - accelerated hair loss with loss of nail plates. Worst of all is curable.
According to the symptoms, the focal form of alopecia passes through several stages, consider them:
- Progressive - the loss of strands flows with itching, tingling and burning. In places of alopecia there is hyperemia and mild inflammation. Hairs around the bald patch are shortened. Increased hairdoing occurs during combing and washing your head. The follicles are atrophied.
- Subacute - on the head inflammatory foci are formed, which quickly spread, leaving after them the bald areas and areas with shortened strands. Over time, the inflammatory process is replaced by increased skin pallor.
- Regression - new hair appears on the areas of alopecia, but thinner and brittle in comparison with the rest of the curls. At first they have a light color, but are gradually pigmented.
If focal alopecia is mild, the dystrophy of the nails, eyebrows or eyelashes does not occur. Treatment consists of a complex of medicamental, physiotherapeutic and surgical therapies. If necessary, patients are provided with psychological assistance. A comprehensive therapeutic approach allows us to normalize the condition of the head of hear.
Hormonal hair loss in women
Active substances that stimulate the body to perform certain tasks and functions are hormones. They are responsible for metabolic processes, the state of the immune system, mood, genital functions, the state of the hair on the head and other parts of the body.
This form of alopecia is a sign of increasing testosterone levels in the female body, that is, the male sex hormone, which negatively affects the hair follicles. The problem arises when there is insufficient production of estrogens. The main causes of hormonal baldness in women are:
- Postpartum period - the increase in sex hormones during pregnancy makes the head of hair thick and strong, but after delivery, the condition worsens. This is due to a sharp decrease in the level of estrogen and their gradual recovery for the period until pregnancy. Normalization of the hormonal background takes up to six months.
- Adrenal / ovarian dysfunction, thyroid disease - these organs are responsible for the production of sex hormones, so the disturbance in their work affects the condition of the locks and the whole body.
- Reception of oral contraceptives and hormonal drugs - very often problems with the curls make themselves felt after the course of hormonal therapy or the abolition of the intake of contraceptives. Because of the lack of hormonal "make-up", the level of hormones decreases sharply, which leads to temporary increased hair loss.
- Climax - after 40 years, the female body reduces the intensity of the ovaries, which leads to a decrease in estrogen. Age changes are provoked by vegetation deterioration, deterioration of the skin, nails and general well-being.
- Emotional shocks and stresses - disorders of the nervous system lead to intensive production of cortisol, which increases the production of testosterone and its derivative - dihydrotestosterone. Intensive loss of curls is observed 2-3 months after the action of the stress factor.
- Hereditary predisposition - if on the maternal line there were cases of alopecia, that is the risk of her inheritance.
There are a number of symptoms indicating a violation of the hormonal background in women: malfunctions in the menstrual cycle, weight gain, increased activity of the sebaceous glands, male-type hair, decreased libido, coarsening of the voice. The so-called hormonal hair loss, can be associated with seasonal factors.
To determine the cause of the disease state it is necessary to determine the level of sex hormones and to undergo a number of other laboratory and instrumental studies. The treatment is complex, aimed at restoring the level of hormones and normalizing their production.
Androgenic hair loss in women
Progressive hair loss caused by the impact of male sex hormones androgens on hair bulbs is androgenetic alopecia. The pathological condition occurs not only in men, but also in women, leaking in the male type. The appearance of a cosmetic defect is promoted by such factors:
- Diseases of the endocrine system.
- Tumor neoplasms that produce male sex hormones.
- Admission corticosteroids, antidepressants, steroids and other medications.
- Polycystic ovary and other gynecological diseases.
- Violation of the hormonal background.
Given the above reasons, the genetic predisposition for androgenic alopecia is not a risk factor, in contrast to androgenetic alopecia. The disease is characterized by a slow progression with thinning, a decrease in volume and loss of curls. Shvelelura thinens in the frontal and parietal zones, which is especially noticeable from the central part.
The pathological process can last for several years. Referring to the doctor with the appearance of the first symptoms of the disease, that is, in its early stages, gives chances to stop the disease and restore the health of the curls. The diagnosis of androgenic alopecia consists of the definition of sex hormones and thyroid hormones. A microscopy of the hair follicles and a phototrichogram are also performed.
The treatment is complex, therefore involves taking medications to normalize the level of hormones, physiotherapy and cosmetic care for vegetation. Therapy is long, but the first positive results are noticeable 3-4 months after the start of treatment.
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Telogenovoe hair loss in women
During growth, the hair goes through several stages:
- Anogen is a phase of active growth, with a duration of up to 7 years. Characterized by increased division of cells, which actively move to the follicular sac, sprouting through it and forming a hair shaft. In the anogenesis there are about 85% of all strands.
- A cathode is a transitional stage, lasting up to 30 days. During this period, the root of the hair remains without feeding the papilla, which leads to atrophy of the follicle.
- Telogen is a stage of rest, lasting up to 6 months. The root advances to the surface of the skin and falls out. This is a physiological process. Every day a person loses up to 100 hairs.
Violation of one of the stages leads to loss of curls. Telogenous alopecia is a temporary loss of strands at the telogen stage. Hair loss occurs under the influence of stress factors, which can be both physical and emotional:
- Increased excitability of the nervous system.
- Violation of sleep / wakefulness.
- Increased fatigue.
- Deficiency of vitamins and microelements.
- Depressive state, apathy.
- Negative impact of environmental factors.
- Abortion, postpartum period.
- Iron-deficiency anemia.
- Cancellation of hormonal and contraceptive medications.
The first sign of telogenesis alopecia is increased loss of curls and uniform hair thinning. Diagnose baldness with the help of careful consideration of curls. The fallen hair has a healthy, intact rod, and a follicle of light color. With this type of disorder, about 20% of all hair is lost.
Telogenous alopecia is not treatable, since strands in the telogen stage will in any case fall out. The doctor's task is to improve the condition of the head of hair with the help of various physiotherapy procedures and cosmetic products that strengthen curls and stimulate their enhanced growth.
Hair loss by male type in women
Male pattern hair loss affects women. According to medical statistics, pathology occurs at the age of 20-40 years. The curls thin, thin and fall out. Foci of alopecia are localized in the region of the crown. The main causes of this disorder include:
- Genetic predisposition.
- Hyperandrogenism - develops in the syndrome of polycystic ovaries, as well as after prolonged use of synthetic progesterone preparations.
- Violation (contraction) of the anagen phase during the growth of the ringlets.
- Age-related degenerative changes in the body.
- Improper hair care.
- Traumatic cosmetic procedures.
- Skin diseases.
- Iron-deficiency anemia.
Androgenic alopecia has a number of characteristic symptoms. The first thing that women encounter is the widening of the cuts during combing. Also there is a thinning of the head of hear from the temples to the forehead, in some cases there is complete alopecia on the vertex.
Diagnosis of a painful condition consists of a set of laboratory and instrumental methods. Particular attention is paid to the trichogram, that is, the evaluation of the appearance of the roots of the hairs and their life cycle. Treatment depends on the cause of the disorder. Typically, therapy consists of the normalization of the production of female sex hormones and the elimination of diseases that cause male pattern baldness.
Chronic hair loss in women
There are many factors that lead to hair loss. Some of them occur in the body on an ongoing basis, causing chronic alopecia. Such reasons include:
- Diseases of the endocrine system (diabetes mellitus).
- Violation of the functions of the adrenal gland, thyroid gland.
- Hormone-dependent tumors.
- Reception of oral contraceptives.
- Long-term treatment with medications.
- Chronic stress and emotional experiences.
- Unbalanced nutrition.
- Living in severe environmental conditions.
Chronic baldness in women is characterized by a thinning of the hair on the vertex, less often in the temples and in the frontal region. The treatment of the cosmetic problem is based on the elimination of its cause. Particular attention is paid to preventive measures aimed at strengthening and stimulating the growth of ringlets.
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Seasonal hair loss in women
One of the most common causes of deterioration of hair, skin and general well-being is beriberi. As a rule, the deficit of nutrients is especially acute in the autumn-spring period. Seasonal hair loss is explained by such factors:
- Lack of vitamins and trace elements.
- Climate change.
- Unbalanced nutrition.
- Decreased estrogen hormone levels.
The duration of intensive loss of strands is from 1 to 3 months. If the period of the temporary alopecia coincided with the physiological phase of the change of curls, then the deposition processes can last for 3-4 months.
At the first symptoms of seasonal alopecia it is necessary to improve the diet and improve the quality of hair care. It is recommended to use shampoos, masks and sprays to strengthen and increase the growth of cosmetically. To improve microcirculation and metabolic processes, strengthening of the follicles recommended head massage and other physiotherapy.
Also it is necessary to protect hair from negative influence of environment. In the cold season, wear warm hats, and in the summer use tonics to protect strands from ultraviolet radiation and wear panama / hats.