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Facelift and facelift: types, results, rehabilitation, reviews

, medical expert
Last reviewed: 25.06.2018
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Facelifting is an operating or non-surgical correction of the face and neck by affecting soft tissues, the so-called facelift. Facelifting allows you to get rid of wrinkles and flabbiness of the skin, which are often the result of aging.

Facelift for the face was first mentioned in 1906 in the context of discussing surgical intervention in adjusting the age-related face transformations. In the future, various methods of soft tissue correction in the face area were developed. In 1976, the term "subcutaneous muscle-aponeurotic system" was introduced under the abbreviation SMAS. In 1982, the technique of SMAS resection and fixation was developed. Since this period, new facelift techniques have begun to appear, which are currently widely used in plastic surgery. In our time, it can be argued that with proper preparation and operation by an experienced expert facelifting will not have complications.

Prevalence of facelift

The human body inevitably undergoes a number of age-related changes, among which the most pronounced is the age-related change in soft tissues and facial skin. This is due to the force of gravity. Because of this influence on the collagen structures, there is a sagging of the skin, the appearance of deep furrows, especially near the nose, lips and eyes. The aging process of the face is accelerated depending on the availability:

  • bad habits;
  • harmful effects of harmful factors from the outside, including the unfavorable state of the ecosystem;
  • pathology of somatic type.

The combination of several or all factors leads to the appearance of wrinkles, including mimic, sagging skin, changing the shape of the face. In the most unfortunate cases a person can have all the signs of aging by the age of 35-40.

Due to the fact that appearance is an integral part of a person's social life, including career advancement, facelifting is one of the most popular plastic surgeries in the world, inferior to mammoplasty, rhinoplasty and liposuction. Both women and men resort to surgical intervention.

Indications for the procedure

There are both operational and non-surgical methods for correction of the face and neck. To perform the facelift procedure, it is enough to be critical of the condition of the facial skin. Often, the operation is resorted to after 40 years, although there are cases of premature aging at the age of about 35 years.

Non-surgical methods can affect the initial signs of skin aging. For surgical intervention, which is also used to completely get rid of the most difficult cases of age-related face transformations, there are some indications for carrying out:

  • wrinkles and folds in the forehead, nose, neck, temples and cheekbones;
  • sagging of the skin;
  • deep grooves in the cheeks;
  • ptosis of the eyelids, cheeks in the region of the lower jaw;
  • double chin;
  • noticeable nasolabial folds;
  • sagging of the outer corners of the eyes.

trusted-source[1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6]

Preparation

Operational intervention involves some stages of preparation.

  • 14 days prior to the procedure, it is forbidden to use drugs that have a direct effect on blood clotting, for example, aspirin;
  • 24 hours before the procedure, you can not eat heavy fatty foods;
  • the procedure should be performed on an empty stomach without using water as well.

trusted-source[7]

Technique of the facelift

There are many techniques and techniques for facelifting. Among them we can identify the main:

  1. Endoscopic facelift

Endoscopic facelift is an operation intervention that allows you to get rid of wrinkles, furrows and folds. Performed as a lower facelift, and lifting of the upper and middle zone.

The operation lasts up to 2 hours. In the region of the head where the hair grows, several incisions are made about 2 centimeters long. They can also make incisions in the temporal part to correct the middle third of the face, or under the upper lip to correct the lower part. With the help of an endoscope, which is inserted through the incisions made, and other devices, soft tissues are flaked from the bones and fixed in the required manner. In this case the nerve endings, blood vessels and hair bulbs are not injured.

This operation is carried out under both local anesthesia and under general anesthesia. Approximately 5 days after the operation, a special bandage of the compression type should be worn. The patient is finally rehabilitated within a few weeks after this surgical intervention, usually within 14 days. Also the advantage of this method is the absence of visible scars, in contrast to the open braces.

  1. Hardware facelift

One of the non-surgical methods is hardware facelift. With such a facelift, an invasion is not performed, but scientists' developments are used in the form of apparatus that emits high-frequency radio waves. This technique is called "Thermage" and is absolutely painless. The device for this method of suspenders is equipped with various nozzles that allow you to lift not only the face, but also other parts of the body with different thickness of skin.

Hardware facelift is characterized by the thermal impact of radio frequencies on the facial tissues. They penetrate the skin a maximum of 0.5 cm, not bringing discomfort to the patient. With this suspender, only a change in the temperature effect on the face is felt. The connective fibers are compressed and compacted, which shows an almost instantaneous effect in the form of the absence of wrinkles, furrows, folds and tangles.

  1. Facelifting with filaments

The essence of the injection of threads is that they have on the surface incisions and knots, through which fix the tissues of the face and create a small skeleton under the skin. Thanks to them, the skin of the patient is smoothed and becomes even, the streaks and wrinkles disappear.

Facelifting with threads of aptos is a rather painful procedure. The procedure lasts about half an hour. For the operation, local anesthesia is used. Anesthesia is injected into the areas where threads are supposed to be injected. For injection of threads a small incision or puncture of the skin is made.

This lift is shown to patients from 30-35 years old. This procedure has a result comparable to the effect of a plastic surgery. Rehabilitation occurs mostly in 2 weeks, occasionally it takes 4 weeks to recover. The period depends on the individual characteristics of the patient, the adequacy of the post-procedural care, the quality of the doctor's work and the threads that were used in the procedure. After the brach, the use of pain medication is possible.

  1. Laser facelift

For laser facelifting, a focused light stream is used, which allows a tightening in the most inaccessible areas. This lifting refers to the methods of non-surgical facelift and allows you to tighten the skin of the face and neck without invasive interference. With laser facelift:

  • The depth to which the laser beam penetrates during processing is kept under control;
  • at the same time, the skin condition is improved due to the effect on collagen;
  • there are no incisions that lead to scars and scars, do not need to use anesthesia;
  • the procedure is quite fast;
  • rehabilitation is faster than with other methods.

There are some complications, such as:

  • swelling of the face (soon after the procedure disappears);
  • pigmentation in affected areas (to avoid hyperpigmentation, direct exposure to sunlight on the skin of the face should be avoided for 6 months).

There are also contraindications:

  • pimples, blackheads;
  • sensitive skin;
  • dark skin;
  • dermatological infectious diseases.
  1. Short-face facelift

With short-face facelift, also called "S-lifting", the deep structures of the facial tissues are surgically treated, thus leading to the maximum degree of skin rejuvenation. For this, the skin is cut in the area near the ear, in connection with which the scars after the operation are almost invisible. The effect of this procedure is sufficiently long, since the fixation of deep structures of the facial tissues is made.

Before the operation, anesthesia is used. Next, cuts are made (in male patients in front of the ear, female behind the goat.) Soft tissues are then fixed, seams are placed on the tissue in the zone of the cheekbones, after which additional intradermal sutures are applied, which are removed at least one week after the procedure.

With a short-face face lift:

  • the smallest incision of the skin is made;
  • facial tissues are fixed in a strictly vertical fashion, which avoids the effect of stretched skin and maintain this effect for a long time;
  • intermittent intervention, sparing local anesthesia and intravenous sedation, invasiveness is thus minimal;
  • the muscular aponeurotic system is fixed in this operation, which gives a long-lasting result;
  • the possibility of damage to the facial nerve is minimal, there are rarely complications, in particular in the form of hair loss;
  • fast rehabilitation.

Among the shortcomings can be called such:

  • often there is a different degree of discomfort in the ears after facelifting of short-bladed type
  • the maximum effect is achieved by lifting the upper two thirds of the face (upper and middle), to tighten the lower third should resort to a combination of procedures

Short-face lifting is shown at the age of 40-50 years and is combined with other types of suspenders and plastics.

  1. Vector facelift (bioarmifting)

Vector facelift is also called bio-reinforcement. This procedure is carried out at the age of the patient from 30 to 55 years.

Invasively, under the skin of the face are injected gels that have in the composition of hyaluronic acid. Thus, a subcutaneous skeleton is created that resembles a natural skeleton made of collagen fibers. The introduction of the gel promotes the design of a new frame, which helps to recover its own.

This procedure has many advantages:

  • simultaneously with the skin tightening, the processes of collagen production and biorevitalization are started due to the successive destruction of hyaluron, the gel, after administration, gradually dissolves and resolves;
  • The created skeleton promotes support of soft fabrics of the face and does not allow them to sag in the further;
  • The effect of tightening the skin of the face is achieved, as the skin contracts in the direction from the edge to the center;
  • The skin of the face becomes denser and becomes more elastic and elastic;
  • the appearance of the skin is also better, the face acquires a clear shape, wrinkles disappear;
  • Do not need additional care after the procedure, since there is no rehabilitation as such;
  • after the first procedure, the effect becomes noticeable, within 2 months after the vector lift, the result is noticeably increased.
  1. SMAS-lifting

SMAS-lifting consists in a tightening of the muscular-aponeurotic system, which consists of a connective tissue. This type of lifting is in addition to other types of facelifts. With this intervention, the incisions are made in the temporal region above the line of hair growth, after which the SMAS rises, the excess tissue is cut off and everything is fixed. Most often, the SMAS-lifting is appointed after 45 years.

  1. Circular facelift

Circular facelifting (rhytidectomy) is the most traditional procedure that is performed under general anesthesia, making a cut along the hair growth line in front of the ears and behind them. The skin is tightened by the doctor, the superfluous parts of the tissues and skin are removed, after which the seams are superimposed. They are eliminated 2 weeks after the operation.

Postoperative effect of facial rejuvenation for 10 years.

  1. Acupuncture facelift

Acupuncture facelift technique of facelift based on ancient Eastern techniques of acupuncture. Needles affect the active biological points of the face. Acupuncture is combined with massage of active points and other physiological procedures.

In addition to the anti-aging effect, there is normalization of blood circulation and lymph flow through the body, which also causes a tarnishing of the skin color and the appearance of wrinkles and contusions on the face.

Individual scheme is made by a specialist for a particular patient. Points that are subjected to acupuncture are located on the face, ears and other parts of the body. Needles contribute to the reaction of tissues, which helps in the production of collagen and elastin and in the activation of vascular responses.

The acupuncture session is held for about an hour. The patient is positioned on the couch while the specialist pierces the skin with needles. Needles are always sterile and disposable, the used material is disposed of.

Experts for maximum effect are advised to undergo a course of several sessions, from 5 to 10 procedures followed by supporting sessions once a month. The scheme of therapy is appointed individually, as a rule, it is carried out 3 times a week

  1. Total facelift

Total facelift is a set of different braces. As a rule, the braces of all parts of the face of the upper, middle and lower thirds are combined. The procedures are carried out by endoscopic and open methods, depending on the individual characteristics of the patients.

This method shows the maximum effect, which is observed due to the combination of different techniques and methods in one particular patient. This lifting is permanent.

  1. Charging for the face (facelifting yourself)

There are development exercises, facelifting in the conduct of which occurs without operations.

It is necessary to distinguish facelift from Galina Dubinina. This non-operational facelift is an author's face lift system that combines the exercises developed by the author, as well as the already existing elements of yoga, bodyflex and fitbuilding.

The methodology of Galina Dubinina is multidirectional. Facelifting is carried out with the help of:

  • gymnastics for eyes by a special technique;
  • work on problem areas of the neck and face;
  • fast charging;
  • various manipulations aimed at working on the neck and face and intended for execution in the morning and evening;
  • bodyflex exercises for skin;
  • massage stimulation of bioenergetic skin areas;
  • Procedures developed for male facelifting.

These procedures are divided into several courses.

Among the positive characteristics of this technique of non-surgical facelift, the following can be distinguished:

  • with sequential execution of the procedures, there is an effect comparable to the result after the facelift surgery, a rejuvenating effect, the disappearance of wrinkles and folds, the alignment of the skin;
  • after performing all the manipulations, the face becomes more fresh, there is a significant improvement in the skin condition;
  • due to the fact that the author uses the elements of respiratory gymnastics Bodyflex, improves the state of the body systems and the overall well-being of the patient;
  • There are no indications, including age and the presence of a disease in the patient's anamnesis;
  • Excludes any complications that occur after surgery.

Areas of facelifting

The face is visually divided into three parts. Facelifting can occur in:

  • the upper third (this type includes facelift for the eyes, so-called temporal facelift, frontlifting tightening of the forehead and eyebrows skin);
  • middle third (facelift nasolabial folds, facelift cheeks);
  • the lower third (facelifting of the lips, chin, also this category includes facelift for the neck).

trusted-source[8], [9], [10], [11]

Contraindications to the procedure

To the different methods of facelift, there are special contraindications. However, there are general contraindications to the operation of facial correction:

  • infectious pathologies in acute form;
  • acute inflammation;
  • diabetes in severe stages;
  • problems with blood coagulability;
  • oncology;
  • cases where the patient's age exceeds 50 years;
  • the period of gestation (pregnancy) and lactation;
  • thick skin;
  • severe sagging or inflammation of facial skin tissue;
  • hypersensitivity to anesthesia;
  • dermatological severe pathologies;
  • autoimmune diseases;
  • problems with the heart and blood vessels.

Contraindication to certain operations may be factors such as a tendency to form keloid scars, prolonged smoking, etc.

trusted-source[12], [13]

Consequences after the procedure

After the procedure for face and neck lift, a rejuvenating effect is observed, disappear

  • wrinkles and furrows;
  • ptosis;
  • folds;
  • Oblasts;
  • flew;
  • and the general condition of the person is also significantly improved. After surgical intervention, the final results are visible after 2 months after the operation.

More specific consequences depend on what type of procedure was used.

Patients' reviews are mostly positive. One of the important criteria is the qualification of the specialist who performed the operation or hardware manipulation, and the quality of the patient's preparation for a suspender.

trusted-source[14], [15], [16], [17], [18]

Complications after the procedure

After the operations or hardware types of braces, there are some complications. So, after surgery for a facelift and a neck, the most likely complications can be:

  • Excessive pigmentation of the skin, which in most cases disappears on its own in 6 months after the intervention; a risk factor is the tender skin;
  • swelling and bruising; edema after facelift is mainly expressed in a weak form and pass after a while without additional manipulation. The peak is 3 days, in the absence of other complications, the edema disappears before the 7th day of the postoperative period;
  • at operations during which cuts are made on a site of a head with a hair covering, loss of hair which does not lead to baldness can be observed (hair growth after a while is renewed).

Infrequent complications can occur:

  • bleeding (after operations during the rehabilitation period);
  • necrosis of the edges of the skin (in operations with cuts, the risk group includes the elderly age and lengthy experience of smoking);
  • the formation of hypertrophic scars (in cases where the patient has a tendency to this effect);
  • weakening of muscles responsible for facial expressions (passes without unnecessary interventions for up to six months);
  • damage to the facial and auricular nerves;
  • the development of infectious diseases through the entry of pathogenic microorganisms into the body through wounds (depends on the individual approach to care of wounds).

trusted-source[19], [20], [21], [22], [23], [24]

Care after the procedure

Rehabilitation and recovery after facelifting depends on the type of procedure performed. So, after bio-reinforcement and some non-surgical techniques (exercises, acupuncture), there is no rehabilitation, and laser facelifting rehabilitation occurs in a very short time. However, after the procedure of laser lifting, sun rays should be avoided for half a year.

In most operations with endoscopic or open intervention, the following care rules exist:

  • stay in hospital up to 3 days;
  • wearing compression mask on face up to 7 days;
  • seams during facelifting are removed after the first week (with cuts in the area of the ears) or on day 10 (with a cut in the area of hair growth);
  • wash your hair and apply makeup on day 7;
  • return to work can be in 2 weeks;
  • You can not conduct a massage for a person for 1 month, after this period, recommend lymph drainage massage;
  • paint hair, stay in the sauna and sunbathe after 1 month;
  • You can start sports after 1.5-2 months.

Facelifting, carried out in any way, will have the best effect with correct postoperative procedures and adequate care.

trusted-source[25], [26], [27], [28]

It is important to know!

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