The skin on the neck is thin, mobile, it easily forms cross creases, which eventually deepen and turn into wrinkles.
Gymnastic exercises for the muscles of the neck
The starting position is standing. The chin is lifted up, the neck is extended forward. Movement of the lower jaw from below upwards, resembling an attempt to bite an apple, hanging on a branch. Exercise is repeated 10-12 times. Purpose: increase of tone and strengthening of platism.
similar position - the main counter. Writing in the air of numbers or letters with a held pencil or straw. Each number or letter is repeated 4-6 times. The goal is to increase tonus and strengthen the platism of the masticatory and lower mimic muscles.
The starting position is sitting or standing. My chin is high. With the thumbs of both hands or the base of the palm of one hand, the chin is supported from below and has a slight resistance to opening the mouth or circular movements of the lower jaw. Exercise is repeated 5-10 times. The goal: increase of tone and strengthening of platism, chewing and lower mimic muscles.
The starting position is sitting or standing. The chin touches the chest, hands with woven fingers on the back of the head exert slight resistance when trying to unbend the head and lift the chin upward. Exercise is repeated 5-10 times. The goal: to increase the tone and strengthen the muscles of the side and back of the neck.
The starting position is standing, legs are shoulder width apart. The head is tilted to the right, the palm of the left hand is on the left temporal region and exerts a slight resistance when trying to unbend the head and tilt it to the left. Similar movements are carried out in the opposite direction. Exercise is repeated 5-10 times. Aim, increase tonus and strengthen the muscles of the lateral and posterior surface of the neck.
Starting position - lying on the back Under the head put a half-folded pillow. Unbending the neck, the head is pressed with the crown to the pillow and held in this position for 4-12 seconds. Exercise is repeated 5-10 times. The goal: increase the tone and strengthen the muscles of the back surface of the neck.
The starting position is lying on the back. The head is lowered below the edge of the massage table or bed. The head is raised upward, not lifting off the shoulders from the bed (bending the neck). Breathing is free. Exercise is repeated 5-10 times. The goal: increase the tone and strengthen the muscles of the front surface of the neck.
The starting position is the main rack. Turning the head to the sides (rotation of the neck) with an attempt to reach the right and left shoulder with the chin, without bending the neck. Exercise is repeated 5-10 times. The goal is to increase the tone and strengthen the sternocleid-mastoid muscles.
The starting position is the main rack. The left hand is located on the left cheek, and the head is turned to the right. When you turn your head to the left, the hand is resisting. Exercise is repeated 3 to 6 times, after which the hand is changed. The goal is to increase the tone and strengthen the sternocleid-mastoid muscles.
The starting position is sitting. Tipping the head back (neck extension) 10-15 times.
The starting position is sitting. Circular motion of the head: 4-5 times one way, and then the other. This complex of gymnastic exercises is not recommended for persons suffering from severe pathology of the cervical spine and impaired blood circulation in the pool of vertebral arteries.
Massage of the back surface of the neck
Stroking of the neck: with half-bent hands, covering the neck in the region of the mastoid processes, the hands are smoothly lowered onto the shoulders and back, connecting them at the corners of the shoulder blades. The movements are repeated 3-4 times.
Finger rubbing of the neck muscles: II-V fingers of the hands are fixed in the middle of the clavicle. Rubbing is carried out with the fingers of both hands, starting at the level of the spinous process of the VII cervical vertebra. Circular rubbing movements are carried out at a distance of 2 cm from the vertebral column up to the base of the skull. At the base of the skull rubbing is carried out with four fingers (II-V), passing to the mastoid processes. Descending along the lateral surfaces of the neck, the brushes are connected in the area of the scapula. Similar movements are repeated in the same direction by the back surfaces of the II-V fingers bent into a fist.
Rubbing the muscles of the shoulder girdle produces a back surface of the fingers bent into a fist, along a trapezius muscle starting from the shoulder joints, going upward along the lateral surfaces of the neck to the mastoid processes and again descending onto the shoulders and joining hands in the area of the shoulder blades
"Sawing" and "chopping" produce a lateral surface of the hands in the same directions as the previous grindings. Then again, stroking the neck.
Massage of the front surface of the neck
Perform stroking the neck, chin and rubbing the muscles of the chest and neck with spiral movements of II-V fingers of both hands.
Transverse neck tweaks. Movements begin at the base of the neck, from the middle line to the back and are performed by straightened fingers and nail phalanges of the 2nd finger. The rest of the fingers are bent into a fist. Movements are made on three horizontal lines (at the base, in the middle of the neck and at the top) - 4 tweaks on each line. The same movements are made on three vertical lines: middle, lateral and posterolateral.
Circular grinding of the muscles of the neck. Movements are produced by the back surface of the bent fingers. Begins from the jugular breaststroke. Fingers are directed to the middle of the clavicle and rise along the lateral surface of the neck.
Triturating the chin produces the lateral surfaces of the straightened fingers of both hands in the form of sawing under the chin in both directions. The movements start from the middle of the chin, continue to the right, then to the middle of the chin, to the left and end in the middle of the chin.
Chin Chin. Produce by jerky movements of the relaxed fingers from the middle of the chin to the left and right sides. Repeat 3-4 times.
Pokolachivanie the chin ("staccato"). Cushions of straightened fingers produce abrupt flicking of the chin area from right to left (3 times).
Pressing movements in the area of the chin produce a half-bent palm (one on top of the other). Palms tightly embrace the chin and press it. In the center of the chin, the arms diverge and rise with pressure to the corners of the mouth. Repeat the movements from the middle of the chin to the middle of the lower jaw, and from the middle of the chin the arms diverge to the lobes of the auricles. The movement of stroking the chin ends with both palms.
A slight overflowing movement under the chin produces II, III and IV fingers of both hands alternately with each hand, starting from the left corner to the right angle of the lower jaw. Repeat 2 times and finish at the left angle of the lower jaw.
Stroking the movements of the chin and neck. The palms of both hands alternately from the base of the neck produce a stroking movement towards the lower jaw (from right to left). Reaching the middle of the chin, the palms extend to the lobes of the auricles and descend along the lateral surfaces of the neck to the clavicles. The movements are repeated 3 times.
Basic physiotherapeutic procedures used to care for the skin of the neck
Patients with thyroid disease and hypertension do not undergo physiotherapy.
The following procedures are recommended:
Vaporization is used to improve the absorption of cosmetic creams and masks. The duration of the procedure depends on the skin type of the patient (for dry skin from 3 to 5 minutes, with combined and fat for up to 10 minutes)
It can cause overdrying of the skin, so its use with dry skin is permissible only when the device is located at a considerable distance from the face and neck of the patient, as well as by feeding a stream of hot steam through a tangent vector. On the eye area should be put cotton wool sponge, moistened with a toning fluid for the eyelids. The method is contraindicated in the presence of a network of dilated blood vessels.
Darsonvalization by talc, dry antiseptic mask or by the final cream is applied only on the lateral surfaces of the neck. When working in this area, a T-shaped electrode is used, which is moved from top to bottom. With flabby skin of the neck, darsonvalization is carried out using a contact, labile technique, after the final cream, which has an easy lifting effect. The duration of the procedure is an average of 10 minutes, a course of 15-20 sessions, every other day.
Myostimulation is included in a complex of cosmetic procedures for neck skin care, both for preventing age-related changes, and for correcting the already existing signs of skin aging. It is advisable to use myostimulation in combination with a hygienic or plastic massage. Patients under the age of 35-40 years myostimulation is not recommended.
Microcurrent therapy is used to care for the skin of the neck (the procedure is performed every other day, for a course of 10-15 sessions).
Also used therapeutic laser, photorejuvenation and aromatherapy with essential oils (depending on skin type). Ultrasound, iontophoresis, vacuum massage, cryomassage (liquid nitrogen and carbonic acid snow), as well as ultraviolet irradiation are not used to care for the skin of the neck.
Neck skin care at home
Facial skin care should not end with the chin area. Cosmetics used for facial skin care should also be applied to the neck and décolleté area. Individual skin care consists of an obligatory complex of morning and evening manipulations.
At home, you need a thorough but gentle cleansing, adequate moisturizing and photoprotection.
Cleansing the skin of the neck is the use of cosmetic lobe (gel, cream, mousse, and foam) and tonic liquids corresponding to the type of skin. Cleansers should meet the following requirements: do not cause changes in skin pH, swelling of the stratum corneum of the epidermis, occlusion of the sebaceous glands and vascular reaction.
Toning solutions (tonics) should not contain alcohol. It is recommended to use thermal water. At home, tonic can be infusions of chamomile, mother-and-stepmother, lime, melissa, bergamot, ginseng, parsley, yarrow, root of ayr, St. John's wort, celandine, cowberry, mint, lavender, mallow, garden violets and marigolds, geraniums and others. The choice of medicinal herbs depends on the type of skin. The prepared solution is wiped face and neck skin 2 times a day, after applying cleansing milk. Infusions are prepared in small amounts (200 ml) and stored in the refrigerator.
Cleansing the skin of the neck is carried out by light circular motions, from top to bottom - along the lateral surfaces, and from the bottom upwards - along the front surface of the neck.
To date, various cosmetic companies offer a wide range of creams specifically designed to care for neck and decollete skin, adequately moisturizing and having lifting effect (for example, "Coerance" - neck cream, "Lierak").
Masks for the neck skin can be prepared independently or use professional cosmetologist professional masks, the use of which is allowed at home (the so-called "homework"). To prepare a mask at home, only high-quality and fresh products are used. The mask is prepared immediately before use. Storage of mask residues in the refrigerator is not allowed. Freshly prepared mask is applied to the cleansed face and neck skin for 15-20 minutes. Then the mask is washed off with cool water. The face is treated with a tonic corresponding to the type of skin, or infusions of herbs, and a Moisturizing Cream is applied. Masks are recommended not to be done more than 1-2 times a week. It should be remembered that extracts of plants and some food products (honey, egg yolk and protein, citrus juices, etc.), often used for the preparation of masks and tonic liquids at home, are potential allergens.
As for peeling creams, the question of their use in the home Conditions should be decided individually. Do not recommend mechanical skin peeling and decollete skin peeling creams containing coarse abrasive particles. Preference should be given to scrubs for sensitive skin, as well as peeling creams based on various keratolytic agents (lactic, salicylic, lianic acid, alpha hydroxy acids, urea, etc.) in a small (4-5 to 8%) concentration , which has a light exfoliating and moisturizing effect.
Prophylactic skin care for the neck is a complex of measures, including not only the use of cosmetics, but also the regular performance of gymnastic exercises for the muscles of this area.
Neck skin care in conditions of cosmetology about the establishment
Careful analysis of the anamnesis and revealing the pathology of the organs located in the neck region allows avoiding complications in the process of checking the cosmetology procedures. It should be remembered that all manipulations of this area are carried out only after preliminary skin cleansing, carried out strictly along the lines of the least tension of the skin. The choice of dietary funds depends on the skin type of the patient.
When carrying out the peeling procedure in a cosmetology room, glycopiligins with a small percentage of glycolic acid (25%), as well as peelings with fruit acids and scrubs for dry or sensitive skin, should be preferred. It is not recommended to use cross-brush brushes for peeling cream, especially on the front surface of the neck.
Moisturizing masks are shown on a cream and gel basis, as well as "solidifying" masks, which include alginates, vinyl or rubber. The thermoactive and some types of plasticizing masks should not be applied to the neck area, except for those in the annotation to which the possibility of application to the neck region is indicated.
A hygienic facial and neck massage with a cosmetic massage cream or oil is shown. Massage begins with the back of the neck and ends with the front surface of the neck. On the course of 10-15 sessions, a day or 2 times a week. Repeated courses - once every six months. With pronounced signs of aging, plastic massage is shown.
Anatomical and physiological features of the skin of the neck region
Subcutaneous fatty tissue, as a rule, is slightly expressed. There are a lot of muscles in the neck that perform various functions. On the front surface are the thyroid and parathyroid glands. At the anterior surface of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, at the level of the upper edge of the thyroid cartilage there is a projection of bifurcation of the common carotid artery and carotid sinus, mechanical action (massage, palpation, pressure) on this area can lead to heart rhythm and blood pressure disorders, and bilateral one-stage manipulation can provoke a syncopal condition. Severe diseases of the thyroid and parathyroid glands, violations of heart rate and blood pressure limit the intensity and volume of cosmetic manipulations and physiotherapy procedures on the front surface of the neck.
Our skin is not only the largest, but also a very important organ, so trauma and pathology with serious damage or loss of skin can be life threatening. Transplantation or skin grafting is the most common way to restore the integrity of the skin.