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Sexual maturation of boys

, medical expert
Last reviewed: 25.06.2018
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Sexual maturation of boys is characterized mainly by the appearance in their ability to grow reproductive function, procreation.

In the age group from 11 to 13 years, the young male representative starts the mechanisms of producing a specific hormone gonadoliberin in the hypothalamus of the brain. It should be noted that the release of this hormone in the body of the boy at first takes place only at night, at the stage of deep sleep. During the further puberty of boys, the dependence on the phases of sleep tends to decrease significantly, and the hormone begins to secrete more and more often during periods of wakefulness. The result of the action of gonadoliberin is activation of the production of spermatozoa - spermatogenesis, as well as male hormones androgens. Androgens in turn cause a number of characteristic changes taking place with the body.

In particular, the total volume of muscle mass increases, and the bones begin to differ by the increased amount of protein they contain. As a result, the dimensions of the body increase, and this process is not uniform, but spasmodic. At different ages of the puberty period of boys, it can occur with different, greater or lesser degree of intensity. The peak of growth activity falls on 12 and 15-16 years. The growth of a boy in this time period is able to increase by more than 10 cm per year. After 18 years of age, the growth of the boy, who by this time already becomes a young man, can grow by about 3 centimeters more. Due to the high content of androgen hormones in the body, at some point in time the growth zones of long bones begin to ossify, which causes the cessation of their lengthening in the future.

The sex organs of boys during puberty undergo development in the course of development, consisting in the fact that the testicles and scrotum, the prostate gland and seminal vesicles become larger in size, the penis increases. The first ejaculations appear in boys from 12 to 14 years.

The hormone testosterone, which, along with androgens, is produced in large quantities, causes the onset of body hair for the male type of hair. One of the results of the action of androgens is that the Adam's apple is actively developed, called the "Adam's apple". This is accompanied by lengthening of the vocal cords, which leads to the formation of a relatively low tone. In the process, there may be a "breaking of the voice".

Sexual maturation of boys is a largely individual process, and although it occurs, as a rule, within certain general age limits, but often depends on many factors in each specific case. For example, boys of the same age can have a rather significant difference in growth, the degree of expression of the body's hair, etc.

Period of puberty in boys

When the puberty occurs in boys, the endocrine system comes to the forefront. With the peculiarities of her activity, in which the lower appendage of the brain - the pituitary gland - plays a leading role in this case, a whole series of specific changes occur with the child. Hormones produced by the pituitary gland, in large quantities getting into the blood, are transported to all parts of the body, acting as a stimulator of body growth and its intensive physical development. In addition, hormones of the pituitary gland activate the functioning of the male sex glands - the testes, which also begin to secrete the corresponding hormones. For the period of puberty boys are characterized by an increase in their content many times. Reflection of this, and in turn, are those changes taking place literally before our eyes with the child in transition, adolescence.

A significant change in the hormonal background can cause the state of psycho-emotional instability inherent in many adolescents. With insufficient upbringing and when there is no internal culture, boys during puberty may show nervousness, be aggressive towards their elders, take a negative attitude towards everything that comes from them. Adolescent behavior is characterized by impulsive rashness, they are often unpredictable and contradictory.

Particular importance for boys during puberty get questions and problems associated with sexual relations. And this is not surprising, because the very essence of all that is happening at this time is to prepare the maturing organism to fulfill one of the most important in human life purposes - the continuation of the genus.

The period of puberty in boys is a very important time for the development and formation of personality. At the same time, the adolescent largely forms self-esteem and self-identification, which determines the success and character of his socialization in the future on the basis of the features of the social roles performed by men in human society.

Age of puberty in boys

Age of puberty in boys can cover the time boundaries from 11 to 18 years. Beginning of puberty of boys mainly at the age of 9-14 years. After 2-5 years from the beginning of the transition or puberty period, this time is also called this period in the life of the child, the final formation of the signs of gender is being completed. The external genitalia of the penis and testicles increase in size. In the testicles, the processes of spermatogenesis, the maturation of spermatozoa, are triggered, and male hormones are produced. The effect of these hormones is that the formation of secondary sexual characteristics occurs: in addition to the changes that occur with the sexual organs, the body's growth increases, a male-type hair covering with pubic hair and armpits develops, and the beard grows. At the age of puberty in boys, the sweat glands are activated, which leads to increased skin fatness and can provoke the appearance of acne.

The age at which puberty occurs in boys is determined by a number of factors, including heredity, nationality, living conditions, nutrition.

Due to the constant excessive physical strain, the time of onset of puberty of boys can shift to a later age and provoke its slowdown. Over the past 100 years, there has been a trend towards a gradual decline in the age at which the pubertal period begins. It is generally believed that the reason for this is the constantly occurring general improvement in living conditions and quality of nutrition. It is also possible that the influence of environmental conditions is also possible.

Proceeding from all above-stated, we will summarize, that the age of puberty at boys, in general, year from a year to a certain extent decreases. This is largely facilitated by eating enough food, which is balanced by the content of essential substances, vitamins and trace elements, a high level of physical activity and exercise. For the normal puberty of boys, it is also necessary to abandon smoking and drugs, from inhaling vapors of toxic substances.

When does puberty begin for boys?

Age, when the puberty of boys begins, mainly - 10-12 years. However, these figures are not a rigid constant and some unambiguous unshakable standard. At a certain confluence of circumstances and due to some existing factors of individual, hereditary or social and domestic character, the onset of sexual maturity may be postponed to a later time. Therefore, for parents, there should absolutely not be an excuse for all bells to sound an alarm if the child entered the puberty period at 14 or even 15 years. In the delay for a year or two, there is nothing really out of the ordinary and supernatural.

Nevertheless, the boy in this regard may be anxious and worried that he somehow differs from peers, for example, that they are below their height, and he does not have, like everyone else, this gun on his upper lip, as if testifying to adulthood . In this case, he very much needs the support of close people who need to support him, cheer him up.

But sometimes too late, when the puberty of boys begins, can indicate that there are some disorders. This situation requires the application for consultation with specialists and the designation of appropriate corrective measures. Thus, with a delay in the appearance of the first signs of puberty boys by 12-13 years, it is worth to visit a doctor andrologist or urologist.

Standards of puberty boys

Each person in his own way, of course, unique and unique, does not look like everyone else's height, weight, facial features and the totality of all other individual characteristics. Individual way from the beginning of life is already the most growth and development, the transformation from a child into an adult. Important in this is the achievement of sexual maturity and self-identification of themselves, in this case, as men. After all, we all come from childhood, and this wonderful time, as well as a transitional puberty period from childhood to adulthood, is very important. There is this transition in each individual person in different ways, but there are some standards for puberty boys.

The first criterion is the age, in which the first signs of the fact that the child's body activates the processes due to which the childbearing function should be actualized in the course of time is noted. Sexual maturation of boys begins in 11-12 years. Do not exceed the limits of the norm is also 14-15-year-old age.

Further, the change in the size of the genital organs is assessed. During puberty testicles increase from 2.7 cm in 7 years to 2.8-3 cm at the time of puberty. By the 13th year - up to 3,6-3,7 cm.

A sexual member from 7 years before the puberty period grows from 3-3.5 cm to 3.8 cm and in 13 years is 6.3 cm, respectively.

At 15 years, the size of the testicles usually increases to 4 cm, and the penis reaches 6.7 centimeters.

Another indicator is the appearance of the hair on the body. At first, the hair grows on the pubis, and by 14-15 years - in the armpits. At the same time, there is an increase in the youthful cannon on the chin and above the upper lip.

Approximately at the same time, by the 14th year, pollutions often begin to appear.

During the puberty period of boys, there are two main growth spikes. At the age of 10-11 years the child can stretch for 10 cm. By the age of 13, it is possible to add from 7 to 8 centimeters.

Standards of puberty boys, of course, are indicative and very average. Some variability, of course, is possible and somewhere even inevitable. But the differences do not necessarily and not in every case indicate the presence of serious abnormalities in the development of the child. If, of course, their values are not too out of the ordinary.

Stages of puberty boys

During the puberty period, one after another, different stages of puberty of boys alternate. Often, right up until the very moment when the child begins to show the first signs of the beginnings of him that form the prerequisites to the fact that in the future he will acquire the ability to perform the genital function, his general development is stable and uniform. At the same time, there are not any obvious and significant changes in the hormonal background. To their peak activity, all the processes associated with the puberty of boys come mostly two years later than the young women. Noticeable changes that occur with boys become apparent only after reaching the age of 12-13.

According to many andrologists, how strong will the sexual constitution of the future man be due primarily to how early the puberty of the boy began. With regard to this statement, however, it is necessary to make a note that it is fair only when the child has not revealed any disturbances in the functioning of the endocrine system.

Among the main signs of advancing adulthood is an increase in the penis, which begins about the 11th year. The beginning of the active restructuring of the organism is also indicated by the onset of an increase in the size of the testicles at the age of 11-12 years.

At the age of 12-13 years, pubic hair begins to grow in puberty puberty. At first, the shape of the hair is similar to the rhombus, and in the future, from the age of 17-18, the internal surfaces of the thighs join the area of hair growth. Subsequently, there is complete body hair on the male type of hair. Vegetation on the face in the form of the first gently gun over the upper lip first appears in 13-14 years. At 15-16 some adolescents can flaunt a sufficiently pronounced and expressive mustache. The appearance of a full beard should be expected for years to 17-18.

This phenomenon typical for the pubertal period of boys as "breaking voices" which mutates because the thyroid cartilage in the larynx develops into the "Adam's apple" appears in the 13-14 year of life. As a rule, the Adam's apple, which was finally formed, becomes 17 years old. At this age, the young man already finds his own voice with a characteristic male timbre.

The production of male sex cells - the processes of spermatogenesis are started from the age of 14-15, which is accompanied by cases of involuntary ejaculation - pollutions.

The stages of puberty of boys come to an end in the age period from 16 to 20 years. Nevertheless, the onset of sexual maturity does not automatically mean that the young man can definitely be considered as fully mature psychologically. Psychological maturity and the formation of personality comes and go somewhat later.

Signs of puberty in boys

Signs of puberty in boys are manifested in a number of specific changes taking place in the pubertal period and are reflected both in their external manifestations and affecting the functioning of various organs and systems of the body.

The body of the boy during puberty intensively grows, the child becomes taller, the total muscle mass increases. The width of the shoulder girdle increases, the figure begins to acquire proportions typical for the male body. Sexual organs - penis and testicles increase in size.

Gradually, the body develops a scalp, starting with the groin, scrotum, armpit, and then all over the body. Then the hair appears on the face. At first a few hairs can break through at the corners of the upper lip and on the cheeks in the upper part of them. For a year after that, the juvenile fluff appears also above the upper lip in the middle.

In the process of puberty boys may have problems with the skin. In view of the hormone in the body, the functioning of the sweat and sebaceous glands adversely affects the body, which causes an increased fat content of the skin. And this, in turn, can provoke the appearance of acne and acne on the body and face.

The vocal cords grow in size and the throat muscles develop, and besides this, an Adam's apple - an Adam's apple - is formed, which serves as a reason for breaking the voice and its coarsening. This process begins at the age of about 13 years and after the expiration of a two-year period leads to the final formation of the voice.

In addition to the above changes, that they undergo the body of a boy during puberty, it is also necessary to bring in those characteristic features that are peculiar to the psycho-emotional state in this segment of his life's path that is not easy for the child. The central nervous system is in an extremely excitable state, behavioral reactions can often be unpredictable and highly contradictory.

These signs of puberty in boys are caused by a rapid rate of both the ongoing restructuring of the whole organism and the change in the whole self-perception and a new assessment of oneself in the light of many factors associated with the process of reaching puberty. To them, a boy who finds himself on the road from being a child to a man can be very difficult to adapt, and therefore understanding and support from parents and close people is very important.

Early puberty in boys

To say that early puberty occurs in boys is possible mainly on the basis of the fact that if the first pubertal signs are noted in a child earlier than he managed to reach the age of 9.

As well as the delay in sexual development, premature onset of maturation is a weighty argument in favor of not having to postpone this matter for a long time to consult a doctor. Suspicion in this context should be caused by the increased size of the testicles, abnormally fast growth of the body exceeding the rates of the average age norm, the appearance of acne on the skin, the embolism of the pubic and underarms, the growth of facial hair, and the child's too low and coarse, broken voice.

Too early admission by a boy during pubertal period is able to have as its main causes the presence of abnormal development of genital organs, thyroid dysfunction, tumor formation in the brain, the consequences of head trauma, complications due to transferred infectious diseases such as encephalitis and meningitis, brain disorders.

This is based mainly on the fact that it is the hypophysis and hypothalamus that participate in the regulation of hormonal secretion by peripheral sex glands. In addition to the early puberty, boys are able to bring some of the factors of heredity. So the probability of premature puberty is high, when the child has excessive body weight.

As the main negative consequence of the early puberty of boys can be called the fact that when a child stops growing. This is due to the fact that the sex hormones in this way negatively affect the bones that the growth zones are closing - those areas that provide an increase in length. Because of this, too early to become sexually mature boys are much inferior in growth to their peers.

Early puberty in boys is successfully treated with modern medical devices. The only prerequisite is the timely detection of the signs of such a process and the appropriate methods. The medical effect is directed depending on the established causes against the underlying disease, or special drugs that inhibit the secretion of sex hormones can be prescribed until the growth processes are completed.

trusted-source[1], [2], [3], [4], [5], [6], [7], [8], [9], [10]

Delayed puberty in boys

Delay in puberty in boys is generally noted if, after reaching the age of 14, the child does not have any signs of a puberty period.

This fact, however, does not mean that it should cause suspicion, in that it is provoked by the presence of any kind of anomalies in development. And perhaps, it is conditioned by some genetic peculiarities, the hereditary predisposition of all or most of the male representatives of a particular family to the late onset of development of their ability to procreate. This phenomenon is quite often known as the constitutional delay of physical and sexual maturation. The sexual maturation of boys in this case is preceded by a period with an absolutely normal rate of growth, the intensification of which and the appearance of characteristics characteristic of pubertal can begin and only by 15 years.

To delay the puberty of boys is capable of the presence of diseases, which lead to significant disturbances of the hormonal background. This can occur in connection with a tumor affecting the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus - the appendages of the brain responsible for the processes of puberty. Prevent sexual development may be insufficient or complete cessation of the production of hormones important for the growth of genital organs - gonadotropins. In a number of chronic diseases of the kidneys, diabetes mellitus, etc., the pubertal period is also often delayed.

With a delay in sexual development in boys, with relatively long upper and lower extremities, there is a frail physique, a high waist line, in body proportions the width of the hips exceeds the width of the shoulders. There is an underdevelopment of the genital organs, a penis is very small, the scrotum does not hang, there is no hair embolism of the pubis and armpits, there are no pollutions.

If there is a delay in puberty in boys, it should be borne in mind that it is fraught with at least an aggravation of the psycho-emotional state of a teenager with this problem, and later threatens infertility. At the same time, treatment does not present any particular difficulties if timely reasons are established and necessary medical measures are prescribed. In adolescence, you can cope with it within 2-3 months.

trusted-source[11], [12], [13], [14], [15], [16], [17], [18], [19], [20]

Later puberty in boys

Later, puberty in boys in some cases may not be directly related to any developmental abnormality, but rather be the norm within the limits of some single families in which puberty in men usually begins later than in adults, which is the total averaged norm. This is a general trend for such a family and the puberty of boys, starting a little later, further occurs with a perfectly normal rate of growth and development.

There are a number of characteristic features on the basis of which it becomes possible to ascertain later the onset of pubertal period in boys. The most obvious and obvious difference of these children is hypostature - that is, they basically have growth lower than their peers. The next symptom is that with the boy reaching the age of 15, he did not have an increase in the testicles. Talk about late puberty in boys can also be based on the fact that by these years there is no growth of pubic hair.

By late puberty, boys are able to bring the child's presence of certain chromosomal abnormalities, in particular Klinefelter's syndrome. In this genetic disease, the female chromosome Y is joined to the male chromosome set XY in a single quantity or several at once. As a result, there are all kinds of disruptions in the functioning of the endocrine system, one of the manifestations of which is a decrease in the production of male sex hormones in the testicles. Tumor lesion of the pituitary or hypothalamus - the zone in the brain that is associated with the processes of puberty, provokes a decrease in the number of gonadotropins, under the influence of which there is an active growth of the genital organs.

So, later puberty in boys occurs due to heredity, as well as against a background of a number of diseases with a violation of the hormonal balance in the body, which is reflected in the slowing down of body growth and the development of the genital organs of boys. When the onset of puberty occurs at a slightly later time than at the age of what is considered the norm, and then goes with a normal pace, this often can not require special correction. Medical measures in the event of an abnormal delay in the entry of the child into the puberty period are mainly reduced to the treatment of the underlying disease that caused it.

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