Many women initiate or agree to have sexual intercourse, because they want emotional closeness or want to improve their health, confirm their attractiveness or satisfy their partner.
In established relationships, a woman often lacks sexual desire, but as soon as the sexual desire causes excitement and a sense of pleasure (subjective activation), genital tension (physical sexual activation) also appears.
The desire for sexual satisfaction, even in the absence of one or multiple orgasms during sexual intimacy, is physically and emotionally useful for the initial initiation of a woman. The female sexual cycle is directly influenced by the quality of its relationship with the partner. Sexual desire decreases with age, but increases with the appearance of a new partner at any age.
The physiology of female sexual reaction has not been fully studied, but it is associated with hormonal influence and is regulated by the CNS, as well as subjective and physical activation and orgasm. Estrogens and androgens also affect sexual activation. The production of androgens in the postmenopausal period remains relatively constant, but adrenal androgen production begins to decrease in women after 40 years; whether this decrease in hormone production plays a role in reducing sexual desire, interest or sexual activation is unclear. Androgens probably affect both androgen receptors and estrogen receptors (after intracellular conversion of testosterone to estradiol).
Excitation promotes the activation of brain regions responsible for cognition, emotion, motivation and the formation of genital tension. The process involves neurotransmitters acting on specific receptors; dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin are of great importance in this process, despite the fact that serotonin, prolactin and y-aminobutyric acid are usually sexual inhibitors.
Genital excitement is a reflex autonomic reaction that appears during the first seconds after an erotic stimulus and causes sexual tension and liberation of the lubricant. Smooth muscle cells around the vessels of the vulva, clitoris and vaginal arterioles widen, increasing blood stasis, and the transudation of the interstitial fluid with the vaginal epithelium occurs in the vagina (lubricant is produced). Women do not always know about stagnation in the genital organs, and this can occur without subjective activation. As women age, basal genital blood flow decreases and tension in response to erotic stimuli (for example, erotic video) may be absent.
Orgasm is the peak of excitement, which is characterized by contractions of the pelvic muscles every 0.8 s and a slow decrease in sexual arousal. Thoracolumbal sympathetic outflow can be involved in the process, but an orgasm is possible even after a complete dissection of the spinal cord (for example, when using a vibrator to stimulate the cervix). When orgasm is released prolactin, antidiuretic hormone and oxy-tocin, causing a sense of satisfaction, relaxation or fatigue, which follow after sexual intercourse. However, many women experience a sense of satisfaction and relaxation without experiencing orgasm.
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