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What is contraception?

 
, medical expert
Last reviewed: 15.05.2018
 
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Unfortunately, in Ukraine the main method of family planning is artificial abortion. The main method of preventing abortion is the use of various contraceptive means.

Classification of methods of contraception

Women'sReversibleNatural

Periodic abstinence

Interrupted intercourse

Lactational amenorrhea method

Symptomatic methods

Barrier

Mechanical

Chemical

Intrauterine

Inert

Medicamentous

Hormonal

Combined hormonal contraceptives

Pure gestagen contraceptives

IrreversibleSterilization
Men'sReversibleNatural

Periodic abstinence

Interrupted intercourse

Barriermechanical
IrreversibleSterilization

The term "contraception" means protection from conception and comes from two Latin words: contra - against and conceplio - conception, perception.

Accordingly, the term "contraceptive" means "contraceptive".

According to WHO requirements, the modern "ideal" contraceptive should meet the following basic conditions:

  • be highly effective;
  • do not have systemic effects on the body;
  • have reversible action;
  • be easy to use;
  • be accessible to any social groups;
  • be economically viable.

Efficacy of contraception

Evaluating the effectiveness of the method of contraception, distinguish between the theoretical and practical effectiveness of the method.

Theoretical effectiveness is due to the properties of the contraceptive itself. Skills and the correct use of the method by a woman determine the practical effectiveness of the contraceptive.

The practical effectiveness of various contraceptives is determined by the Perl index. This indicator reflects the number of pregnancies that occurred in 100 women who use this method for 12 months.

There are two groups of contraceptives, the effectiveness of which varies by 2-3 orders of magnitude. The most effective of them are: medicamentous IUDs and all kinds of hormonal contraceptives. According to WHO experts, they refer to modern methods of contraception.

Safety of contraception

The safety of contraceptive methods is determined by the possibility of occurrence of side effects (both negative and positive) and complications specific to the method or its components.

Side effects should be understood as changes in the state of health of a woman or her body, not leading to a serious disruption of the functions of vital organs and systems.

Complications of the method are the resulting health disorders that result in the disruption of the proper functioning of the organism.

Acceptability of contraception

An urgent issue remains the increasing acceptability of the methods used. According to statistics, within the first year up to 25% of women refuse to use the selected contraception. There are two groups of factors that determine the acceptability of contraceptive methods.

Factors determining the acceptability of a contraceptive

Personal factors

  • Age
  • Presence of concomitant diseases
  • Social status
  • Sexual command
  • Reproductive history
  • Experience in using contraceptive methods
  • The need to protect against sexually transmitted diseases

Factors of the method

  • Side effects (positive and undesirable)
  • Complications
  • Reversibility
  • Availability
  • Cost

Today in the world more than 50 million women use intrauterine devices and more than 120 million hormonal preparations to prevent unwanted pregnancies.

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